In theory, you don't even need newer substances or technologies for this: There is this "explanation" to why humans used to see monsters, dragons and other fantastic creatures in the past, and that is mostly connected to a very common dietary item: wheat.
Consider the existence of a fungus that attacks the wheat crops. It does not destroy them, neither makes them inedible: it just slightly changes the appearance (no changes to taste or durability).
The point here is that this fungus (called Ergot), as it develops in the wheat, produces some chemical substances called alkaloid ergotamine, a complex molecule consisting of a tripeptide-derived cyclol-lactam ring connected via amide linkage to a lysergic acid (ergoline) moiety, and other alkaloids of the ergoline group that are biosynthesized by the fungus. Ergot alkaloids have a wide range of biological activities including effects on circulation and neurotransmission. (1 - Direct quote from Wikipedia, please see link below).
Now imagine, you live in a society where a large part of the diet is based on wheat or rye, and those products are contaminated by this fungus. You eat some bread, see a large bird, but interpret that as a dragon, or see a a man riding a horse and visualize a centaur (of course this is just a very simplistic interpretation of meta-mythology); most people would be paying to see that magic.
So, you have access to the fungus, and you can now produce products that have considerable quantities of it, quoting them as having "magical properties". More than the lysergic properties of your bread, there are also other small advantages, such as refined carbs that could easily create addiction (as stated in other answers).
In this case, you can even save some fuel of your time machine by using the spores found in the wheat around the place you are, if those are available (and considering how widespread this fungus was on past times, it probably is).
Obs: The only slight problem of this situation, and of using any kind of substances to generate addiction, is that you are in the middle ages, so there would be high chances that the women you are trying to help would be branded as witches. Then you´d have a much bigger problem in your hands (good luck with that one).
Source 1: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ergot