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Let's sum up things:

A plasma rifle is a common sci-fi trope, that fills the role of the ultimate death machine, just like in real life, heating up the target, expanding at high speeds and releasing deadly x-rays that are so much cancer.

However, problem is that plasma dissipates too quickly, to hit the target.

Now, in this sci-fi setting, plasma rifles were essentially the by-product in the development path of the fusion technology and ironically, also powered by it.

The basic method is that a toroid shaped plasma is created, then accelerated toward the end of the rifle similarly to railguns, the projectile is self-confined. This method of operation was based on this where scientists were capable of producing a self-contained plasma doughnut, that lasted for ten milliseconds, with a few kilojoules.

Question

What measures can I make to increase the plasma's lifetime with the least possible amounts of materials, that would need to be carried around and can I fuel the plasma further, with the railgun as it passes through the rails?

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If we want to go with the plasma toroid idea in the video, you could get away with confining the plasma is a Bessel Beam. It's a laser with a target-shaped cross section, unlike a circular one of a regular laser, wherein between the concentric circles there is no laser energy. A laser in such a configuration could ionize a channel of air that the plasma could travel though. As a bonus the ionized channels could behave like the rails of a rail gun and use the Lorenz Force to accelerate the plasma to the target.

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