The constraint that the day not be too long is fairly stringent one.
A 24 hour orbit -- geosynchronous for today's earth puts the moon at 40,000 kilometers. This is also very close to roche's limit -- The moon is under serious stress.
A 100 hour day would make for very cold nights, and very hot afternoons. This would put the moon far enough away that it was in no danger of splitting into chunks and developing rings.
I think your orbit/day has to be between 36 and 100 hours. Note that this requires an orbital height of 55,000 to 100,000 km. (Calculator here: http://www.calctool.org/CALC/phys/astronomy/earth_orbit )
The larger temperature swings would make violent weather events -- thunderstorms, hurricanes, tornadoes more common. On our present planet this would make some parts of the world uninhabitable, without technical aid. (
A slower rotation speed means smaller coriolis forces. Not sure what this would do the Hadley circulation. I thinkit would mean fewer, but larger Hadley cells. I think this would make for larger weather system that moved more slowly.
Note that ALL of these changes are due to the longer day. The moon being closer doesn't make any difference.
The tidal forces of the moon would distort the equipotential surface (what we call 'level'. But all that means is that your planet would be more egg shaped. It would be hard to detect until you got decent at surveying and figure out that the curvature was smaller going to/from the moon, than it was around the other way.
The side facing the moon would have a natural navigation system. The angle of the pole star gives you latitude, the angle of the moon gives you longitude.
If you want to stir things up, give in a geosynchronous period, but in an eccentric orbit. From the surface of the planet it would appear to drift backward slowly while doing the outer half of it's orbit, then drift forward rapidly during the inner half.
Don't get to carried away. Tides change with the 3rd power of distance. Flex the crust too much, and you get more volcanism. Possibly more tectonic plates, smaller continents.