To answer, I'm using Earth analogies.
Years of erosion and compaction can produce sandstone, which helps create landforms around our world's deserts, and to take arguably the largest oasis (Tamerza) of the largest desert (Sahara) as an example, I'll use to try to answer the question. This is Tamerza; and I'll use other examples that I've been to, to maybe highlight the human impact. I have to stress that an oasis is rarely just a spot on the ground: it is found in crevasses.
Besides the basis of bacteria and simple organisms, you have water and sunshine that allows intense competition among plants that will help establish an ecosystem. This is simplifying a lot of things, but might be useful for your story.
(photo in Tunisia - a little water can go a long way)
Another critical element to a system is the growth and arrival of insecta; again, I'm simplifying an enormous process, but this probably should be noted. They support your birds and small mammals.
I think these might be your best bet for animal life that is successful; a lot of highly developed animals can go a long way, but birds will be able to travel much farther, as evidenced by a number of bird species on Earth. Gliding high in the air allows for seeking the next oasis while avoiding ground predators for a long distance.
But you also want human development; I'll pull from the intense human development in the Gulf Region we worked on. There are a lot of silly developments that are just construction, but there are others where defensive architecture (that is to say, defensive against the arid, hot environment) could be largely successful.
In Ras Al Khaima, a proposal for a modern expression of local climate development was proposed (was not built, but it has its merits) against the wind and the sand:
You've a lot of real-life examples; keep your oasis protected by sandstone, keep your plants in competition; keep your animals both mobile and small; and keep your human architecture resilient against the elements.