My question seems pretty straightforward. Are there any theoretical or proposed devices that will make people capable of communicating across light years nearly instantaneously or something similar?
There are. One of the more popular ones is quantum entanglement. The way you can use it to get superluminous communication is simple. Entangle two objects at the quantum level and then do something to one of them and no matter the distance the same thing can happen to the other. You can heat and cool the objects to form morse code for example. There is no practical limit to how much information you can convey in this manner and the bandwidth is huge. I hope that is what you are looking for <3.