I recently became interested in the concept of matriarchies, since they are nonexistent in world history. I started to wonder what set of circumstances would lead to it occurring, and came up with a hypothetical scenario I've discussed with some friends. I am curious to know what other people think of it.
Suppose women early in our history possessed the inborn ability to access power from an alternate realm. This power would manifest itself in the world in the form of magic. This magic is gender specific to females, and could be learned through training and study. Simple spells and rituals would be easy to learn, while more advanced ones would be specialized. A system of magitech would form, in which magic would be combined with technology. Anything from golem-like mechsuits, to energy crystals that operate as power sources and batteries, to runes that generate heat and light could be just some of its uses. This magitech could be used by anyone, but only be created by females. Although magic is powerful, it is time consuming, draining, and often require multiple components. This would limit it's effectiveness in some ways. Attack magic would be a specialized field, and often limited to support roles in war.
One of the inborn magical traits women would possess is the ability to control their reproductive functions. Pregnancy would be an active process, in which the mother could decide whether to make it a boy or girl. Birth control would be a natural trait that could be turned on or off. They could choose to carry to term, pause, or abort the child at will. Birth would be a relatively painless, or maybe even enjoyable experience. Also, women would be infertile while under stress, which I would think would eliminate coercion.
Would these changes be enough to justify a matriarchal society forming?