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Octopuses have this sort of setup, with a smaller brain to direct movement in each of their tentacles, but say we had a humanoid with these extra brains specifically for their arms and hands. How would they benefit from this setup?

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I don't remember where I heard this, but I seem to remember that certain actions of the human body, i.e. reflexes, are actually controlled by nerve clusters along the nerves in the body to reduce latency between sensation and reaction. So, the benefits would be faster reflexes.

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    $\begingroup$ If I burn my hand, does the message go to my brain and then back down my arm so that I react to the heat and move my hand? I think not. I think it is a reflex and that I have moved my hand in almost the same time as it took to get the message to my brain. So I agree with you. $\endgroup$ – WRX Jan 28 '17 at 22:20
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    $\begingroup$ If I remember the information correctly, that was the example they gave, and the information only goes about half-way up your arm, to a nerve cluster, and then the move signal is sent to your hand. $\endgroup$ – Brian Lami Jan 28 '17 at 23:21

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