Sure... but it depends on how long you want to live fore. There's no civilization here. Even if you have replicators for food and water, nothing works forever. One thing that's neglected is that you crashed here in a ship, which will have supplies such as water (what, you're on a five year mission to boldly go where no man has gone before and you didn't consider no man has gone there because there's no water). Your premise assumes that your ship crashed far enough away that the debris field wasn't melted by the lava (because you're people will melt too... not much of a story there) and relatively in tact or at the least, with a minimal debris field (terminal velocity is a bitch on any planet, you'd have to have some safe impact otherwise you might as well land in a lava pool.). Depending on the skills of your surviving crew, you can work up some survival strategy that could prolong your lifespan on the planet.
Even if you have to have an escape pod launch and that's how you get onto this world, what kind of escape pod will not contain enough water and emergency rations to last days presumably adrift in space (though all the Star Trek Escape pod scenes I recall curiously were small box like structures that didn't have any bathroom facilities.) either way you get there, the ship can still provide some shelter, food, rations, and other amenities to at least last for a bit longer.
I'd next look into crew skill sets... a doctor or even a meditech could provide basic CPR and possible medical relief to atmosphereic poisons and what have you. An engineer could jury-rig up a comms unit (normal situations that would be protected as it's critical to getting out distress calls... but in fiction that ruins the story... got to leave them inoperable for a good duration of the story). Scientists can futher remind the party that, hey, you need to think smart in this situation, and give your crew all the facts about volcanoes that you could possibly need to give to the audience (all scientists, even those with out geological specialties, know everything about volcanoes, that's just science fact). Then it's just a matter for guesstimating the length of survival stay and running the clock to the last possible second, at which point, you're safely rescued.
Of course, your mention of gladiators complicates this... the planet you want might be a nice place to visit (from the perspective of survival) but you probably aren't going to live there... The gladiators seem to imply that there's more than your typical surviving bridge crew and one guy in a primary colored uniform who will die to prove it's serious danger. You're talking about civilization. That's harder... you're not going to suddenly evolve to this... you might try cultivating food... but the rub is if you're near enough to see active volcanoes, chances are your soil is volcanic in nature... and the last thing you hear about life in Hawaii how devoid it is of the stuff. Volcanic soil is very fertile so if life can't make it here... it's not going to... so you likely don't have enough food and water to feed a new civilization, grow crops, and provide irrigation to those crops that can be then reclimated into potable water... The problem with space travel is getting things up there... most space ships will probably be economical with space and supplies... only what is necessary AND a bit more in case of emergency.
The other case where gladiators could arise is if this peaceful ship on a diplomatic mission to all de wrong places (give me the pun, damn it) has no weapons and something is killing them... if you want it to be a fellow survivor, see above about getting off soon and needing to survive that long and have him be a factor in bringing the countdown to death down quicker. Else, it's alien to your heroes... either another poor unlucky crash survivor who is probably not to well off, the enemy that shot you down, in which case, he has space guns... why are you challenging him to personal combat OR native life... which was ruled out but...
As they say in the movies, Life Finds A Way. Yellowstone national park has all sorts of microbial life in various pools that are either acidic enough to melt humans or boiling hot to the point life as we know it would be dead in short contact OR both at the same time. Ecosystems exist in plenty of forms where the autotrophic level is not solar based on this very Earth... and one of the most diverse ecosystems at this level primarily thrives around underwater volcanic vents where the autotrophs there use volcanic energy to fuel the ecosystem. No sun needed. Now, these are all underwater and lacking water would be difficult for life anyway... one of the deadest parts of our planet are regions in the Andes Rain Shadow that have not received any rainfall in all of recorded human history... in some spots, there has never been appreciable water since the dinosaurs were around... and equally there has been no life...
But if you have pockets of water, Vocanic areas would have small ecosystems... not many diverse life forms, just enough to do things, which could again be a threat... and if you're looking to survive, maybe a controlled crash near a body of water could bring you in contact with this alien life... which would be pretty threatening... after all, this animal would have been purpose built to hunt and eat in this climate... and you're dying because of it.
Again... this is more biological... there are plenty of reasons why you shouldn't make it this far that have already been answered. Assuming the situation you described can exist, it would be quite harsh to civilizations of gladiators rising up.