"We have all the problems of a major theme park and a major zoo and the computers aren't even on their feet yet." - Arnold, Jurassic Park
We won't be able to cover all of the issues that your mining station might face in a Stack Exchange post. Space is an unforgiving place with a tremendous number of technical challenges. If I were to somehow condense each issue into one word in this post, I'd still need to type more than this entire answer.
We can categorize them though:
- Liftoff issues
- Landing issues
- Mining issues
- AI issues
- Cost issues
To get a sense of just how difficult space is, consider just the launch process. Here's the countdown for the SpaceX Falcon 9, lifted from another stack exchange answer:
L-13:30:00 Dragon Power Up
L-7:30:00 Launch Vehicle Power Up
L-3:50:00 Liquid Oxygen Loading
L-3:40:00 Rocket Propellant 1 Loading
L-1:00:00 Weather Briefing
T-0:09:40 Verify that Terminal Countdown has started
T-0:09:30 Merlin 1C: Lox Bleeder Valves Open
T-0:07:00 Dragon to Internal Power
T-0:04:46 Stage 1 & Stage 2 Auto Sequence starts
T-0:04:30 Transfer to Internal Power
T-0:04:10 Vehicle Release Auto Sequence
T-0:03:40 TEA-TEB Ignition System Activation
T-0:03:25 Flight Termination System to Internal Power
T-0:03:11 Flight Termination System Armed
T-0:03:02 LOX Topping Termination
T-0:03:00 Second Stage Thrust Vector Actuator Test
T-0:02:00 Range Verification
T-0:01:30 Final Engine Chilldown, Pre-Valves/Bleeders Open
T-0:01:00 Flight Computer to start-up
T-0:00:50 First Stage Thrust Vector Actuator Test
T-0:00:40 Propellant Tank Pressurization
T-0:00:20 All Tanks at Flight Pressure
T-0:00:15 Arm Pyrotechnics
T-0:00:03 Merlin Engine Ignition
Now please note that this is just the timeline for synchronizing tests. Each of these events comes with dozens of detailed checks that took many years to iron out. This doesn't include all of the incredible feats they have to accomplish after liftoff either.
Landing is no simpler. There's the amazing show of what it takes to land a booster that SpaceX has demonstrated (sped up video). There's also the astonishing SkyCrane used to land curiosity (seriously insane people). Needless to say, the differences in velocities of different pieces is enormous in interplanetary transport, and it takes a lot of care to get them right. Feel free to look up all of our failed landings to see how many things can go wrong.
Mining, itself, is tricky. I don't have much experience on the topic, but the general issue with mining is dust. Dust gets into everything. At first I'd thought that perhaps this might not be a problem on the moon, with its lack of an atmosphere to carry the dust. Turns out, moon dust is still nasty:
These micron-sized spikes get bombarded by ultraviolet rays from the sun, giving each grain an electrostatic charge. The result: A highly abrasive material that gets on everything and stays there. Hatches, seals, valves, bearings—any machinery that moves on the lunar surface will be subjected to dust damage. "Imagine sprinkling broken glass onto a seal," said Gentry. "And then every time you cycle it, you sprinkle more glass. Sooner or later it’s going to leak."
Most mines resolve these issues by having humans there to fix the unexpected. You are only going to have AIs, so you will have all sorts of issues with the AIs. You're going to have to decide how smart they are and how capable they are, and then write your difficulties accordingly. For us, just making robots that walk is still considered an achievement, even if they may not happy about it (one of my favorite overdubs). If you make the robots too smart, you have to worry about other issues (this overdub of the same video shows where that might go).
Finally, you have to deal with all of the cost issues. Depending on the value of your mined material, you may have to cut corners. A Falcon 9 launch costs \$62 million, and can carry about 5,000kg (to GTO). That means launching material from Earth costs \$12,400/kg. Obviously returning mined materials from a much smaller gravity well will be far cheaper, but you're going to have to pay close attention to the cost of any material you need to send up.