When you get to be 10,000, it's not about material at that point. It's about design and environment. Things last when in an environment that doesn't have extremes in temperature, which are maintained.
A building could perhaps last 10,000 years if it was occupied and maintained. That means that you couldn't just build it, and never add to it for 10,000 years. There would have to additions, replacements & upgrades as you went.
This engineer on reddit says:
Concrete will (if in the right environment) continue to strengthen
with time. It can be susceptible to attack by chlorides and other
chemicals though (e.g. in an environment where the road is salted in
the winter) and this can reduce the lifespan of highway bridges if
they don't have sufficient cover depth or the right admixtures in the
concrete. Steel in buildings is generally mild steel with bolted
connections - and therefore not very susceptible to fatigue. For a
skyscraper the main source of fatigue would be vortex shedding - in
the case of the empire state building the construction of walls with
cinder blocks and the weight of the structure damps this out. So in
theory you could maintain the chrysler building and empire state
With maintenance, the future is NOW!! As to the materials, many of the ones you mention are more resistant to wear and tear, but they aren't immune. Titanium CAN rust, it's just more resistant to it than regular steel.
From the same thread on building lifespan:
Buildings don't really have a lifespan - they have a continuous
cost-benefit analysis between cost to maintain and cost to rebuild and
value of use/inhabitation. Sometimes with increasing age the cost to
maintain also increases, but this isn't necessarily the case, nor is
10,000 is such a large figure in terms of years. Our oldest occupied structures are at best three thousand years old, and you are talking about pushing that with a design that does not, frankly, lend itself to longevity. Gravity is a thing. The higher up you build, the more stresses on a building.
It's about design, maintenance, and a lack of natural disasters rather than material. You don't like pyramids but hey, that's what stands the test of time. There are some Indian temples which have some of the height you want, but are built in more of a triangle shape.
We don't use materials that stand the test of millennia in modern structures because we value the ability to push buildings to their extremes (in the case of the skyscrapers, that's height). So things that we know can last, like stone, simply can't be used because they lack flexibility for the design. And we like glass.