There is one sad truth about quarantine:
People will do a lot to escape death
You are leaving them for almost certain death. The only thing that will keep them down are:
Exactly the same three things works against you.
Physical barrier probably makes little sense
If material is common and readily available, tools to cut it are pretty common and readily available. Carbon nanotubes? "CNTs are in fact very soft in the radial direction." Kessler Syndrome particle field? There are Whipple shield. And so on.
For everything you can have with little time, they will have countermeasures in short time. For everything you prepared long time, crime syndicates prepared just as long. No way around it.
So what to use if time and resources give us a tie? The only thing left:
The last outbreak of smallpox in the 1972 in Yugoslavia required a martial law. Literally soldiers on the streets, roadblocks. Order to shoot anyone moving without lawful reason.
Earlier, if quarantined ship was trying to get to harbor anyway, it was not uncommon to burn it. Or, in some cases when it was sure there was a plague, ships might be burnt and survivors quarantined.
What kept people from moving? From escaping probable death? Only one thing. rulers was prepared to kill some and save nation. Smallpox kills only 30% of it's victims. What's the chance that soldier, afraid to get it and ordered to shoot, will? Probably much higher than that. That's why it worked.
You need weapons. Mine field, satellites with auto targeting systems, and soldiers / police / militia with superior firepower - because automats can be fooled (hacked, EMPed etc) sometimes and you can't risk that.
If virus kills 95% of it's victims, you must go for 99% of quarantine-breakers. Oh, and don't forget to make it a fireworks show. Really. Big, bright, loud and colorful. The only way to stop future breakers is to show them how suicidal it is. For peoples' own good you need to make a show of it.