Yes; but only in groundwater, not in the ocean
There does exist a bacteria in the division Firmicutes that uses uranium and water to generate its own energy chemotrophically. This is slightly deceptive, the bacteria don't actually use the Uranium, they rely on radiation from Uranium decay to produce hydrogen gas from decomposition of water. The bacteria then use the hydrogen gasses and dissolved sulfates to generate energy.
These bacteria are found in rock formations with sufficient Uranium content and groundwater. Unfortunately, Uranium has a concentration of 0.0033 ppm in the ocean, presumably as dissolved Uranium salts. As such, they would be very hard to concentrate through any natural process, and thus the concentration would just be too low to provide enough energy for similar bacteria.
Ocean floors are mostly made from tholeiitic basalt which erupts in mid ocean ridges and is conveyed outwards to continental margins where it is subducted under continental plates. Basalt in general, and mid-ocean ridge basalt in general has an exceptionally low concentration of uranium (see section 2.1 here). So does the mantle in general, with respect to the 'black smokers' that allow chemotrophic sulfur based ecosystems. Thus you are unlikely to find sufficient concentrated uranium ores underwater. So these bacteria would have to stick with groundwater near concentrated uranium ores to get sufficient energy.