Depending on how limited the phenotype you're looking at is, you might make the scenario work if you can keep your desired phenotype manageable to a sex-linked trait. It will only work with traits limited enough that they can be sex-linked, since those genes are only a portion of their overall genetics - but I suppose a limited gene on that chromosome could activate, or work with other genes to create the phenotype you're looking for.
Most genes are duplicated, there are two copies (one from each parent) - this is a backup and safety net, but it will also allow recessive genes to hide, which you're trying to avoid. Sex-linked genes can avoid this redundancy, to some degree - matched genes (and therefore recessives) are only possible with females (XX), while males are defined by their unmatched genes (XY). In either case, since the genes are split by parent, and there's no room for redundancy, you can get a sort of generational cutoff, where genes are either expressed or not present, just where that lack of overlap happens
So, looking at your setup, something attached to the Y gene will always breed true to sons, and never to daughters. Something attached to the X gene can't be passed on by sons if they themselves don't show the trait - if it doesn't express itself, they don't have it. A daughter cannot pass on any portion of a trait from her father's Y gene, and a son can't pass on anything from his father's X gene. Y linked traits, therefore, would either be present or not, full stop - no recessives. X linked can be recessive, though only in daughters, so you might need to think about it a little more.
You might make it work by simply have two or three Y-linked genes (either one, two, three, or one, two, neither), for your three phenotypes, and leave it at that. Having two x-linked traits might almost work with a little tweaking, since boys would have one, the other, or neither (three states), girls could have one or the other, with having neither for the third state - you would have to assume the traits are dominant, and that those inheriting both are simply non-viable and don't survive, or else that will get tricky. Pairings between parents with different traits will simply result in no daughters, as well, but it might be possible after all that.
Of course, this is starting from earth humans - if you're building a people, you might make something more workable by tweaking the genetics. Any gene which not going to be matched can eliminate recessives - perhaps your species doesn't need redundant X-chromosomes, allowing for XO to be female (eliminating the possibility of recessives again, they will be expressed or not). Or perhaps there's a different set of genes which goes through a haploid cycle, for whatever reason. Plants, I think, alternate haploid and diploid generations - something like that will eliminate the possibility of recessives, whatever is there will be expressed or it was never present.