An alien race wants to test out its new technology that modifies the atmosphere of Earth and other terrestrial planets, they decide to center it over Central Park, NYC. One of the first things they want to test is how the wind affects the environment. The weather modifier appears to be a large tower that extends into outer space. Now let's say 40 miles from the center of the alien device, winds are sustained at 140 mph with higher gusts, From 40 to 80 miles they are sustained at 100 mph and from 80 to 130 miles they are sustained at 70 mph, from 130 miles to 180 miles the wind rapidly tapers off but is sustained around 20 to 70 mph. What would be the long term effects if these winds remained this way for a full year?
New York City
Well, New York City would have to be evacuated and no one would live there for a while. There's going to be a substantial economic effect due to that (expensive but not ultimately destructive to the USA as a whole).
I don't think that a 400 mile wide stationary hurricane would be large enough to affect weather outside of the immediate area. However, it might well be enough to disrupt the northern Jet Stream, affecting weather in Northern Europe.
The USAF will of course do whatever they could to destroy the weather tower as quickly as possible.
The effects would be locally limited, on one side is the sea where the created wind would simply dissolve in the air masses that are moving over the sea, propelled by much bigger forces than such a weather generator.
The same would probably be the case for the weather over the land, but a little more altered through the terrain, in some cases it would be possible that such a wind would strengthen natural weather phenomenon or weaken them but neither on a big scale nor lasting, if you see the massive influence humanity had on weather with the comparative little effect (even though the consequences of these effects are huge) you get an idea of the necessary force you need to bring up so actually have a bigger impact on weather.
At first though, the sudden polar change would tip Earth onto another axis of rotation; it would be rapid and very violent. Most likely gravity would have the biggest effect on life, and hurl things violently around (you would probably be hit on the backside by trees).
Secondly, the sun would rise/set at different angles, as most likely the south pole would be somewhere around Brazil and the wind would have blow down almost everything around or bend them before they froze; trees would freeze downwards, depending on the actual length of freeze they would never return to there original shape and most likely die from sudden changes.