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In 1791 Vermont was annexed by the United States of America, it was one of the first states that America annexed and what more, one of the few that was independent. Hey, speaking of being independent, is there any way Vermont could stay independent?

What is the smallest change I can make to American history to avoid the annexation of Vermont?

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    $\begingroup$ There is essentially no way that a landlocked nation of 85,000 would be viable. By 1791, the concept of the nation state with defined borders was well established; in the age of mercantilism and tariffs, the Vermonters would not have made enough of their own things. They would have been dying to join either Canada or the US within a few years. $\endgroup$ – kingledion Oct 11 '16 at 12:39
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    $\begingroup$ @kingledion How do you see it being different from other small landlocked nation, such as Andorra? $\endgroup$ – Kys Oct 11 '16 at 16:33
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    $\begingroup$ Andorra is not really a sovereign nation, with all that implies. The president of France is the co-head of state of Andorra, with the Spanish Bishop of Urgell; 2/3 of the residents in Andorra are not citizens; it has never had its own currency; it has only a ceremonial army; its economy is based on people visiting (10 million a year, who knew?) and dependent on open borders with its neighbors. A similar situation exists with other small European states (San Marino, Monaco, Leichtenstein). They only exist because of inertia from the Middle Ages, and lack of interest in dissolving them. $\endgroup$ – kingledion Oct 11 '16 at 16:40
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It appears that the reason Vermont wasn't a founding state of the USA was arguments over land ownership with New York, but it was always expected that it would eventually become part of the US. Vermont did start talks at one point about becoming part of the Canadian province of Quebec, so the simplest way to avoid it becoming part of the US eventually is to have it become part of Canada.

However, that doesn't keep it independent. The best way to have that happen is for it to become a route for some kind of trade between the US and Canada that neither side wants to admit to, but is too profitable to stop. At that point, it becomes convenient for both the large countries that it should continue to exist. Such trade may well be somewhat criminal: the trick will be not to make it too criminal.

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