So I understand how gas giants and their many, many moons operate, and I can make educated guesses about how Earth-sized satellites could orbit a large gas giant, as well as how gas giants can be in the habitable zone. What I'm curious about is developing a civilization.
Suppose an intelligent species (let's say humans, to make things simple) originates on the moon of a gas giant planet. The moon has slightly more land than sea (about 40/60, compared to Earth's 70/30), and has an orbit which keeps it within the habitable zone, albeit with some pretty extreme seasons.
Some of the key aspects I'm trying to figure out are time-keeping (calendars) and cosmology. Could a civilization recognize that their world goes around another world which goes around the sun? How would the night sky behave in general; could it lead to cosmology or astronomy discoveries similar to ours?
If I can understand how our calendars arose, it may give insight as to what to expect on a system with a more complicated sky.
I'm willing to provide more details on the world I'm developing, if it helps. Just let me know. Any ideas you all' ready willing to provide are appreciated.