For this problem to be solveable, let us assume that knowledge of this ability exists. If no one knows that "there exists one or more people who telepathically kill anyone who thinks malice towards them", then it will be unable to solve the problem. Once this knowledge exists, and has been acknowledged, however, it can be solved. [Note that "one or more" is crucial here: If there only exists a single person with this ability, then that person is by definition Joe, and thus thinking about how to kill the person with this ability will trigger the ability.]
This problem can then be broken down into two pieces:
- How can a system be designed to kill a person or persons with this ability?
- How can this system be informed of specific targets?
The first is trivial to solve: As long as you don't specifically think about any of these individuals, they won't detect you, and won't kill you. All that is necessary is the knowledge of this ability. And even if knowledge of this particular ability doesn't exist, knowledge that one or more people have the ability to kill telepathically could in theory be enough to solve the problem.
The second is trickier, however, as it just leads back to the base problem.
To that end, the solution lies in the part that can be solved: To safely solve #2, we must apply misdirection when solving #1.
An individual or a group, looking to solve the problem, creates a robot capable of murder, and programs it so that once a target is input, it prevents that target from killing others, by whichever means its A.I. deems most appropriate; to this end, the robot will not be fully compliant with the Three Laws, if they exist in this setting, so that it is able to consider "kill them before they kill" as a valid solution.
This robot is then presented to the world as a whole. However, and this is crucial, the designers leave out the part where it is able to kill its target. The world, including the legal systems, assumes that this robot will prevent its target from killing through non-lethal means. However, this robot has its power supply drained uncharged, and is unable to accept input until it fully recharges and is booted up; this procedure will take at least an hour or two. Rather than waiting, the designers then leave, as they have crucial business elsewhere; this prevents them from seeing the name of the target, because if they see the name, they will die (after all, they know that the robot kills; if they see the name, then, they will know that it kills Joe ). They will then proceed to isolate themselves, making sure not to have any contact with the outside world until long enough has been passed that they can be certain all targets have died; they may fake their own deaths, and move to some hidden location.
At this point, after turning himself in, Joe would likely be considered a telepathic serial killer, able to read minds and kill from any location. Furthermore, he would likely be considered to not only be one of the world's foremost serial killers, but openly flaunting it; after all, he turned himself in, then proceeded to kill anyone and everyone that tried to stop him, presumably just to show that he can. The legal enforcers may or may not know that his murders are being committed by his subconscious instead of his conscious mind, but that doesn't make much difference.
As such, Joe would likely be the candidate chosen for the robot's initial run. The world, including the legal enforcers, would assume that it will approach him, unaffected by his powers, and perform brain surgery to remove his telepathic ability and/or interfere with the "signal", so to speak; this assumption will prevent Joe's ability from killing anyone involved. The robot will then proceed to kill Joe, to the horror of those who assigned him as the target.
At this point, one of two things can happen:
- The legal enforcers can reveal to the public that the robot killed Joe, at which point it, and possibly this "build a killbot, then use misdirection" method as a whole, can no longer be used to solve this issue if it arises again.
- The legal enforcers can hide his death. This would likely involve "revealing" to the public that the robot determined that his ability was outside of his conscious control, and found a way to permanently disable it. They would then claim to have placed Joe in a relocation program, giving him plastic surgery and a new identity for his own protection. This would likely keep the method viable for future use, although these legal enforcers would most likely die if they ever learned that it was being used to deal with another person with this ability (due to thinking that they would be guilty of that person's murder by inaction, since they would be unable to reveal that the robot simply kills).
Thanks goes to this answer by enderland, for inspiring my answer.