Essentially this is more about the mechanisms responsible for super-powers as in this case super-strength. The question assumes that the super-strength of someone Superman is purely due to his possessing super-powered musculature and a correspondingly super-powered physiology and anatomy with its various quirks and properties.
Superman shall be considered as our typical example. Frankly super-powered musculature exerts all known properties of biological matter and physiology. Although the earliest incarnation of Superman, circa 1938, comes closest to being possible, but even this version of Superman exceeds reasonable bounds that could be achieved by any incredibly strong organism.
Consider the fact that Superman can pass among ordinary human beings, as Clark Kent without any sign of causing catastrophic damage. Also, he doesn't any tendency to bounce up into the air as if he was walking on, what for him, would be an extremely low gravity planet.
This suggests that Superman must be able to turn his super-strength on and off only as required. This will enable him to all those Clark Kent things without raising any suspicion about his true identity. This also suggests that the source of his super-strength may well be a kind of force-field. Considering Superman's invulnerability can be explained by his generating a force-field it isn't much of a stretch that his super-strength is also due to either a modified operation of this force-field or a complementary force-field in its own right.
Note: the force-field concept furthermore explains Superman's ability to lift buildings, ships, aircraft and even catch falling human beings without any of those structures falling or breaking apart when he does so.
Superheroes who are masses of super-muscles in the conventional sense will be a menace to those around them. But that limitation is due a failure of imagination on the part of their creators. However, the majority of super-strong superheroes function in a way similar to Superman. It has been established that Superman's super-strength cannot simply be due to his having super-muscles, and there must be a controllable mechanism responsible for many of his super-powers including his super-strength.
You may relax, comic book fans, your favourite superheroes aren't walking disaster areas due to uncontrolled aspects of their super-strength.
Note: DC Comics has tried to explain Superman's invulnerability being due to a bio-energy field, but that's just too ridiculous.