I'm not entirely sure what your concept really is, so this will be an answer in two parts. Part one, selective enhanced sensory perception. Part two, generalized sensor processing, where more brain power could, for example, be dedicated to the business of processing primary visual signals. .
First, unfortunately, I think there is insufficient evidence to support the proposition in your question that loosing a sense makes other senses stronger, if by stronger we mean a deaf person can see farther or at a finer resolution, or a blind person can here high or lower pitched sounds at lower amplitudes than a sighted person. This is what i'm calling sensory enhancement.
There does appear to be evidence that the loss of one sense can make you more effective at using your other senses, even though the baseline physical performance of the sensory organs or the structures immediately processing the signals from the organs have not changed. A blind person may be able to discern more notes in a orchestral piece, or a deaf person may be able to more rapidly find hidden images in a drawing. This I will call perceptual enhancement.
If your question is concerning perceptual enhancement, then it may be easy to imagine a brain organization where all perceptual processing can be turned over to the output from only one sensory center in the brain. Crudely, we might consider a savant who can play any piece of music after a single hearing as having a massive amount of perceptual processing power turned over to the auditory centers and the motor centers controlling his hands. The creatures we are imagining here would be "volitional savants", capable of operating in what we would consider normal mode, or turning over massive amounts of processing power to a specific sensory process, making them far more perceptive in that area, but essentially blind in other areas (both sensory and areas involving brain processing power not committed elsewhere). You could imagine such a savant who had focused on finding a clue in a complex visual pattern, being unable to speak or even sit in a chair straight while most of his right brain was churning through stimuli from the visual cortex.
On to ideas about generalized senses. If your question was not about this concept, quit now! I'm going to continue on from a previous answer, using synaesthesia as my proof of concept. Synaesthesia, while clearly a brain disorder, shows that it is possible for nerve impulses collected by one sensory organ to be received and interpreted by a brain structure not normally associated with that organ. Tongue to visual cortex, touch to auditory center of the brain.
Further, research seems to indicate that we should not think of visual signals as being transmitted to the visual center and ending there. The analogy of circuits wired to computer chips only goes so far and breaks down in this case. Signals picked up by your optic nerve and sent to the brain arrive at the visual center, but leak out and those signals are "seen" by many other areas of the brain.
For an example right on the nose, consider an experiment where the researchers created an electrode array 140x140 connected to a camera. The electrode is placed on the tongue of a blind subject. The image seen by the camera is transmitted to the electrode array. The result after some training is sight! Albeit shadowy and low (140x140) resolution, subjects were indeed able to see using their taste organ.
Now, however, is where my concept breaks down. Human sight, as noted above, is really much more about image processing in real time, and that work is done, not by a general purpose "computer" but by a purpose built processor. It does not appear that we see by running the "sight" software in our general purpose computer brain. Rather, we see with the "hard wired graphics card" visual center of our brain and even the signals received via the tongue in the above experiment must be received by and processed by the visual center for us to see an image. and that center is a physical structure that cannot, apparently, be augmented in any way other than physical rewiring.
So, I think I must agree with others and say, its not possible to dedicate more processing power to the actual brain apparatus of 'seeing' or 'hearing' or 'touching'. These structures are too highly specialized to be amenable to enhancement by the addition of more generalized "processing power". You will see only as well as your visual structure in your brain will allow, and allocating part of your visual structure to process taste will only make you blind, it will not make you a connoisseur of fine cuisine, although kale may now 'taste' blue.