Get In Me Belly!
In a nutshell: for humans, "civilization" really got going with the agricultural revolution, which led to permanent settlements, which led to division of labor, elite classes, then writing and accounting. And of course, trade and war and religion and all the things you find interesting when you're not constantly starving.
You Scratch My Back...
But none of that would have happened unless we had the need and the means of invention. In this case, the "need" was safety. We evolved as social creatures. This is because numbers provide comparative safety compared to going it alone. Usually, prey animals like to stick together. It spreads out the risk of being targeted.
When in groups, certain cooperative behavior tends to emerge. For example, most foraging herds or flocks develop a system of watching out for predators (vigilance behavior) and a simple set of warning calls. You also have some kind of understood communication. You may have cooperative parenting and group defense tactics (like how bovines often circle the wagons).
This has been a successful evolutionary behavioral model for dozens of millions of years. But you don't see any animal "civilizations." That's because you also require intelligence.
Keep Bangin' Those Rocks
The thing about evolution is, mutations happen. Most of them are bad. But every so often a mutant has a (small) advantage over others in his generation, and that mutant gets to pass on the mutant gene, leading to more mutants.
Some say you can look at intelligence as just another evolutionary feature. A cerebral and behavioral mutation that turned out to be kinda handy for dealing with situations that would kill a dumber individual (or get you laid more than a dumber individual).
The thing is, human intelligence comes at a huge cost: calories. Powering a human brain can be 20% of a day's calories. So if you're gonna sport a brain, it had better be worth it or you're just as dead as any other idiot. So why did intelligence work out for humans? Because we're risk takers. (Is one theory, anyway.) As the changing climate turned forest into tundra, we were forced out of the trees. So we had to deal with new environments, find new foods, escape from different predators. Intelligence was good for that. As we became omnivores we had to come up with hunting tactics because we were pretty weak compared to the other animals out there.
What's My Motivation?
Civilization = Numbers + Food + Intelligence.
Hyperparasites sound gross and it's not helping that there are probably hundreds of them infesting a single host. Ick! But that host is also probably in a group of hundreds infesting some other poor sap. Can you say Hyperparasite Party! Social behavior can be beneficial in any situation where two heads are better than one. I already mentioned predation. But also, maybe it's difficult to find and latch onto a host, so at some point in their evolution the hyperparasites figured out how to work together somehow and they increased their success rate.
What's the "agricultural revolution" equivalent for hyperparasites? I would say these hyperparasites would have to make the leap from finding hosts in the wild to cultivating them in controlled environments. (This would be like if humans had ranches where we grew elephants that we lived in.) But since these are hyperparasites, it's obvious how to cultivate host-parasites: you cultivate the host-parasites' hosts! (This would be like if humans grew a lot of peanuts because elephants like peanuts and then when an elephant comes to eat the peanuts we move into the elephant.)
The Great Material Continuum
So, strangely, a hyperparasite civilization could actually start with the cultivation of the food that feeds the host upon which the parasite-host feeds ('cos hosts need to eat too). (This would be like if humans made a lot of fertilizer to grow peanuts, to lure elephants, to live in.) It's a pure and simple vertically integrated production model. You gotta admit that would take some smarts.