Suppose in the far future, after humanity has acquired FTL travel and communication (and other assorted technologies) from more advanced alien species in the universe, a small portion of a specific community of humans decides they want to abandon an absolute dependence on the technology of the time and return to a simpler, more human-centric society. They scan the heavens looking for a suitable planet and eventually find one in an uninhabited part of the universe.
They trek across space and arrive at the planet ready to colonize it. As they settle into their new home, they notice that the native fauna are capable of seemingly supernatural abilities. After a few years and some research, the settlers discover that a special device can be used to contain and control the native fauna.
With proper training, the controlled fauna can be used to produce immense quantities of energy and material goods, as well as make the acquisition of existing goods effectively trivial, once again providing the human settlers with a post-scarcity society.
However, the special device is not easy to make; it requires a high level of technical know-how and a considerable investment in resource acquisition and production capability, all of which is hampered by the wild native fauna. A few dedicated, determined individuals with the right smarts can each produce one or two of these a week by hand, but this cannot support the colonists' needs/desires.
What would be the most believable/reasonable economic structure for a post-scarcity society dependent on a scarce resource?
The colonists have an interest in building a society no more advanced than a little further along than the most technologically advanced cultures on Earth today. There are three general culture interests: basic needs, high technology, and the middle ground.
These colonists form small, tight-knit communities of up to a few hundred people. Everyone knows everyone due to social gatherings and open exchange of goods and services. Locally, they are willing to lend a hand for a meal or camaraderie. However, they do trade with other cultures and require some form of exchangeable good or service to meet that need.
These colonists like things to be done for them, so they are free to spend their time however they choose, whether it be rock climbing, cross-country racing, writing, painting, etc. Communities here form in the mid to upper thousands, and individuals may not know their neighbors if they met them at a social gathering. Robots and tamed fauna provide goods and services to meet the needs and desires of the colonists, so they provide goods and services to other communities as they choose.
These colonists prefer to do important tasks on their own, while robots tend to the minutiae of daily life (e.g., garbage collection). Individuals have the luxury to spend their time however they choose, but must weigh their choice with the day-to-day needs of survival. Tamed fauna are an asset in protecting against wild fauna, so a steady supply of the containment device is essential.
There are few than a hundred thousand humans on the planet at this point. Settlements may be spread far apart with the only reasonable means of transportation by technology or well-trained fauna. Contact with the rest of the universe is one-way; no ships or communication can leave the planet without being intercepted and the colony destroyed (the planet isn't supposed to be settled). The communities have no reason to quarrel and only a select few people off-world even know the planet and its colony exist, so no piracy. The capacity to control a wide array of the native fauna will mean all societal/cultural needs can eventually be met.