Can I suggest a different way of thinking about this. For the sake of this example, lets define intelligence as the ability to model ones environment internally, using sensory input, and make accurate, predictive decisions based on that model that can be used to direct behaviors which in turn improve the viability of the creature. Ok? So your intelligent, to a greater or lesser extent, if you can see a situation, predict outcomes with some accuracy, and select behaviors that, with some statistical significance, lead to your success.
Again, for this example, lets say an intelligent creature becomes conscious when its ability to build internal models of its environment becomes so good, that the model includes a very refined and sophisticated model of itself and its own mind.
So, now we can turn the question in a way "I" think fits better with the science of evolutionary biology, and ask, does this particular non-centralized sensory array (some example we choose) allow a creature to develop a clear picture of its environment that can be fed into a model in its nervous system and can the creature act upon it? Assuming the answer is yes, the next question is, as this creature's intelligence evolves over time, and the creatures sensory array evolves with it, how will the array configuration change? Assuming intelligence is a huge evolutionary advantage, there will be great pressure on the sensory array to configure (in so far as the starting biology will allow) in a way that improves the accuracy of input to the model and the ability of the creature to execute the behaviors favored by the model. What will that configuration look like? I don't see that it is at all inevitable that the array will centralize. There would need to be no disadvantage to centralization for this to be favored. And it would seem, right off the bat, that a creature that can see in 360 degrees would start to suffer immediate disadvantages as its range of vision shrunk to fit a more centralized topology.
I could see a creature with 16 sight organs spaced around its body perhaps evolving two or three that drift together to give binocular or trinocular vision in part of its field, while leaving the others dispersed widely. After all, binocular vision does have significant model building and manipulation advantages, but probably not enough to favor elimination of a robust 360 degree sensor net.
I hope that you can use this way of thinking to imagine whatever creature you fancy as a starting progenitor for your new race, figure out how they sense the world, then imagine how they will evolve as, through time, mutations to their sense organs and the placement there of, are favored or penalized by evolution based on their impact to the creatures ability to build and use the predictive models that are the root of intelligence in this construct. What will your end creature end up looking like? How will their view of the world affect the model of reality they create? And will they model their environment effectively enough that they achieve consciousness?