Honestly...not much survives, especially on a geological time scale. If all humans were to suddenly die, we'd leave a fossil record of about 10 very incomplete bodies (and if history is right, if we did discover these bodies, we probably would have assembled them wrong on our first few attempts). The number of dinosaur fossils (and trilobites) is very much a testament to how long they dominated the planet for.
The oldest rocks found on the planet are (oddly enough) not actually from earth. Several meteorites that originated for the moon (ejected by asteroid impact and captured by Earths Gravity) date to the 4.3-4.5 billion year range, while the oldest discovered terrestrial rocks come from the Canadian shield and date about 3.6 billion years. I believe there's some ancient rocks in Australia as well...but the majority of the Earth surface is significantly younger than that. To give an idea of what these rocks had to survive:
2 billion years ago, the super continent Nuna was the planets primary landmass (and kinda tiny compared to the current landmass). It broke up and by about 1.1 billion years ago, the super continent of Rodinia formed. Rodinia broke up, separated itself with oceans and became 3-4 proto-continents, which eventually reformed to Pangaea. Pangaea formed when the two super continents of Laurasia and Gondwana collided about 200 million years ago. Most of this is exists only as theory as there is little evidence of pre-Pangaea...but a lot changed, what is now North America was equatorial at this time. 250 million years from now, the landmass will likely be Pangaea Ultima as North America squishes Japan into Asia.
The reason I bring this up is to show how volatile earths surface is across this timeline. Each of these formations, separations, and reformations of continents/super continents came with incredibly slow violence...masses of land pushed under the surface and new ones brought up. There is pretty much zero chance that any relic dating back to then exists now.
Terrestrial life took a good long time to develop...The first appearance is somewhere in the range of 4 - 3.6 GA, however it took nearly 3 billion years for this basic life to become multi-cellular (life existed, but did very little other than exist). Prior to Pangaea, Earth wouldn't have been much more than a barren desolate rock anyway. If there was a civilization prior to 500 million years ago, it most certainly developed else where and came here. Why they would is a bit beyond me.
Lets try this from a "what would we leave behind". Most of our garbage and easily seen traces breakdown in well under 1000 years through a 3 pronged attack that we actually fight on a daily basis: Plant life (and animal life), Erosion (including rust/oxidization), and short term geological processes such as volcanic and earth quakes. It's possible things like the floating garbage island in the pacific might have a slightly longer lifespan, but nothing that would last into the 10k years timeline.
In the slightly longer time scale (10k - 100k) glaciation becomes the challenge. Glaciers weigh an incredible amount and 'flows' works as a giant scrub brush crushing the land and any artifact from a previous civilization underneath it. In a 'snowball earth' scenario where the majority of the landmass is covered in ice, there is very little chance of anything not in the fossil record surviving for us to discover. Edit to add: Note that a single glacial cycle will leave relics behind to some degree...it's the constant cycle between glacial periods that crush, bury, melt and redistribute, and then crush and bury again. Glacials grind up sediment from the rocks below them, then melt off allowing water to take this sediment downstream and bury what's in it's path (pending on which theories you follow, this melt event can be semi-catastrophic...lakes form ontop of the melting glacier as large as some of the great lakes, until the ice walls holding them in break away and release the entire lake in a single event)
Add in - cataclysmic events, though very rare in a single lifetime, definitely occur in a drawn out timeline. Volcanic super eruptions for example have two impacts...Not only does it cover much of the surrounding land in dust/rock (pending the size of these eruptions this 'surrounding area' can be continental), but they also cause the on-set of 'nuclear winter', bringing on an ice age and inciting the glacial cycle once again
Our longest surviving gift to the earth is likely Cesium -138 with a half life of 2.3 million years...though hard to say if detecting this is 'proof of life' as natural processes could develop it to some degree.
But our longest surviving remnants of civilization won't be found on earth. Objects that we have left orbiting earth, including those on the moon, will be our longest living relics as they are not exposed to the forces of Earth. And it's also where I'd suggest searching...if an intelligent civilization existed on Earth, proof of it will be most likely in orbit of earth, not actually on earth. If we were to disappear today, it's possible we'd even leave a legacy that outlives our sun in the Voyager 1 probe which exited our solar system and into interstellar space in 2013.
I guess a bit more abstract..Hitler might be an odd leftover of our civilization. I'm not sure on the validity of it, but I've heard that nazi Germany shooting radio waves off into space might be the first contact an alien will have with messages from earth. More realistically, there was a concerted effort to send a message to a star system (messier 13 I think?) in 1974ish. These radio waves into space might be an enduring symbol of our existence as a species and may be the optimal place to look for signs of others.