Having somewhat successfully raised bamboo plants myself, I know that they're hardy plants. However, our moon is a pretty different story. If we were to bring bamboo to the moon and maintain a small shelter consisting of the basic water, air, and protection from pure sunlight, would it be able to grow? As a sorta follow-up to this, how tall would it be able to get and how long would the plant be able to live?
You supply everything to its liking, so why not? Just gravity! You could use a centrifuge if necessary. So, you can provide an artificial environment to its liking no matter how picky it is.
It will grow the same height as it does anywhere.