The good news: Humanity has expanded to the stars. Specifically, we have colonized a planet ten light years away from Earth.
The bad news: We're still stuck at sub-luminal speeds. No warp drives yet, and no FTL communication.
Rather than having an emperor type who rules over everything, I want to have a more democratic system - not a pure democracy, but more along the lines of the US system. While this election system works fine at the local level (city, planet, solar system), it sort of falls apart at the interstellar level due to time delay. Our planet ten light years out would take ten years to learn who the candidates on Earth even are, and then another ten years to get their votes counted, by which point the election is long over.
Which leads us to our issue. I want elections to be open to everyone, but the only way for that I've been able to come up with is to have people vote on who takes office in twenty years (e.g. the 2516 election is to elect those who take office in 2536), to allow for both planets to get their votes counted. The natural problem with this system is that a lot can change in twenty years - a candidate might die, the issues might have changed, the candidates' stances on the issues might have changed, society's general stance on the issues might have changed - making it a very poor way of electing a representative government.
I'd like to find a balance between the time delay and accurate representation. Totally accurate representation would involve the full 20-year time delay (and therefore isn't fair to either planet). Totally reduced time delay would involve a contingent of electors from the colony planet living permanently on Earth, which gives very inaccurate representation (and therefore isn't fair to the colony planet).
My question, then, is What kind of system could I have that allows people to be fairly represented in elections across many light years?