The biggest change as you've already identified is pregnancy. It's noticable that the main eusocial species are egg layers which means the investment by each queen in each young is lower. Naked mole rats are the exception and in the wild they produce litters with an average size of 11 around once a year. That's a lot of babies for a human to produce but with 4 month pregnancies and multiple births of 4 or 5 at a time it would be reachable. Considering human babies have survived being born 6 months old or even younger it's clearly possible if they were adapted for that.
The queen would have much shorter pregnancy cycles and most likely multiple births as well. The babies would then be handed off to special nursemaid drones who care for, feed, and raise the young until they are old enough to take whatever role they were bred for.
Society would be very stratified and have a reduced sense of self - the average member would value your colony far more than yourself and they would quite literally be bred for certain things.
Warriors, Nursemaids, Workers would all be born adapted to that role and raised to fulfill that role. No doubt occasional ones would move against that but it would be rare, even with sentience.
Whether the queen is the main thinker of the colony could be true but in fact is unlikely to be, there would most likely be a "thinker" type to go with all the others.