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question 1 : What type of organisms would we have to place on mars for its atmosphere breathable for large mammals ( and human beings

Question 2 : are there any organisms that could transform martian sand in such a way that would cause it to be able to support plant life?

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    $\begingroup$ There are many. Technically, once you build something in space, you don't even need to "launch it". You need to be more specific what you're asking about. $\endgroup$ – Mike L. Feb 24 '16 at 16:19
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    $\begingroup$ At the moment there are way too many possible answers, you'll need to be more specific in what you are looking for. $\endgroup$ – Tim B Feb 24 '16 at 16:20
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    $\begingroup$ Yeah, too broad and too opinion based currently Theocles. Narrowing it with details about resources, technology, ship types etc would be helpful, but it may end up being that the answer to this question is "if you want them to yes" $\endgroup$ – James Feb 24 '16 at 16:52
  • $\begingroup$ Simple answer would be a "billion ton" skyhook, which should be abe to support 747 sized spacecraft winched up from the surface of the Earth. Simply taking the ship past Geostationary orbit to the far end supplies enough energy to "whip" the ship out to Saturn's orbit without using any engine thrust at all. $\endgroup$ – Thucydides Feb 25 '16 at 3:34
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    $\begingroup$ All these comments are completely inapplicable. $\endgroup$ – Caleb Woodman Mar 3 '16 at 16:17
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Currently works are underway to develop a strain of cyanobacteria capable of surviving in Mars ambient conditions. It's a difficult work, but not an impossible one. We have bacteria that can already survive in vacuum, though to make them thrive (and not survive as endospores) they need some more work - they can already thrive at quite a low pressure but not as low as 0.006 bar. They live off water (air moisture would suffice), carbon dioxide (abundant) and sunlight, producing oxygen, and they can survive deep freezing as endospores too, so once the pressure issue is solved they will be capable of growing on Mars. (and even if they aren't, they can be used as oxygen supply for a martian base/colony, kept in 'oxygen-producing solar panels' pressurized to a level survivable for the bacteria.)

Once we get the oxygen production going, and local manufacturing, we can start building underground shelters which could be pressurized to reasonable levels and whatever we want could be grown in them. But without raising the atmospheric pressure not much else could grow on the surface.

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You would need genetically altered plants designed to survive on Mars. They would have to be under some sort of artificial covering to prevent the Martian winds from destroying it yet at the same time still let sunlight through. ( not exactly a greenhouse but something similar. The plants produce oxygen which would terraform the Martian atmosphere. You would need some sort of machine though that one take Martian ice and heat it into water would be used to water the plants.

If not plants maybe some sort of fungus.with The right to genetic alterations you might be able to get it to grow on Mars.

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