If gravity were five times as strong as it is now, I'd be more concerned with whether or not our universe still existed.
Let's assume you mean that the mass of the earth was five times greater than its present mass, so that its gravitational pull would be correspondingly higher. The effects would be environment wide, so rather that focus on humans, lets look at the general situation. Here's my guess :
- Flying Animals These would be extremely unlikely. The extra energy required to maintain flight would demand extra strength ( = extra mass ), and conversely, the extra mass would require extra energy. The costs may exceed the benefits, so evolution might not take hold in flying animals. Some gliding by land based animals may evolve.
- Land Based Aminals Smaller animals would be favoured by evolution since they would require less energy to move efficiently in a strongly gravitational environment. The skeletal mass of animals would need to be proportionately higher in order to maintain whatever reduced height was optimal. Similarly, muscle mass would need to be proportionately greater if high mobility was required. Most animals would be slow moving, with perhaps a few species of predators having speed. I would guess that a low, flat form with many supporting legs would be the most common body design, similar to bugs - think centipede.
- Water Based Animals Again, stronger gravity would favour bottom dwelling aquatic species. The amount of energy needed to swim freely would exceed the amount of energy available from food floating freely (plankton), and free floating food would sink faster. Again, one assumes that a flat form with larger skeletal mass would be the most common form. Localized underwater currents may provide some extra variety. Salt water is more buoyant that fresh water, so the changes would be more pronounced amongst fresh water species. The surface of the oceans may support life, perhaps in the form of a paper-thin animal with a large surface area and featuring thing tentacles descending into the waters to feed on plankton forming in the sunlit surface waters.
- Plant Life While height may be common, side branching would be very difficult and expensive to maintain in terms of energy consumption. Plant life would be unlikely to bend in the wind since they would require extra rigidity to support their weight. Once again, low growing, flat, well supported forms would be dominant.
- Geology and Climate The extra gravitational pull of the earth would make it more difficult for high mountains to form. This would mean the surface would tend to be flatter which may imply less dry land and more surface area covered by ocean. Rivers would be less mighty. The climate would be hotter. This is because the earth itself would be denser so its core would be hotter. Also contributing to a hotter planet would be the extra energy required to lift water vapour from the seas into the atmosphere, perhaps resulting in fewer clouds and less rain. This extra energy could come from a more turbulent atmosphere, but that seems unlikely since a smoother planetary surface (no big mountains) would actually reduce atmospheric turbulence.
So ya, things would be shorter and fatter. Kind of like living in Alabama.
Reading sixfootersdude's comments below, I think I have overlooked an atomospheric consequence of this scenario. The atmosphere would hug the earth much closer than it does currently. This added density would result in added heat since molecules would collide much more frequently. It this is the case, then one would expect to see many more cloud and much more rain, rather than the drier climate I had originally assumed. One suspects that visibility would be severely restricted.
I don't see how a denser atmosphere would be more helpful for flight. Gram for gram, animals would weigh five times as much. The atmosphere would need to be many thousands of times denser (possibly more) to allow for the type of flight described. This would make the atmosphere much more difficult to move through, further hindering flight and all types of motion by animals.