Before I start I would like to point out that you are slightly contradicting yourself, or at least not providing enough information.
You say that the tech is dangerously unstable, but that the more "dense" the network, the more stable it becomes. Then you claim that size/distance make the process even more unstable, but that teleportation will revolutionize interplanetary travel. So ... is it unstable and unsafe, or capable of delivering a live human being to moons of Jupiter? Further still? How about Alpha Centauri? Specify, and I will edit my answer to match.
Last but not least, does the technology require a user to teleport from one "platform" to another, or can they teleport from a "platform" to any set of coordinates? Such as inside a bank vault, or behind enemy lines?
There will certainly be consequences, but will they be "unforeseen"?
The widespread adoption of this technology will depend greatly on how safe it is. If there's a 50-50 chance of ending up dead, or your cargo destroyed, then no one is going to use it, and it's going to become one of those footnotes in history.
But. Humanity would never let go of something as massive as teleportation without a fight. Someone, somewhere will find a way to make it safer. This timeline will greatly influence how quickly the technology would be adopted, however.
2) Government influence
In all honesty, with something as huge as teleportation I would think that the military would move to make it exclusively theirs, and that only after many years, and due to government lobbying, would the corporate world get access to that same tech.
When the technology becomes wide-spread enough, as well as safe/reliable, great public and commercial networks will open, which will make travel around cities, around the world, and possibly around the solar system common, and cheap (in the long-run).
Many industries will go bankrupt. I don't think truck drivers, or shipping companies will all go bust, as some things will not be worth teleporting, however all of those industries will scale back tremendously.
This new market will greatly expand as it enters the public transportation sector, and skilled engineers and technicians will be needed - in the thousands. Universities will open whole new faculties devoted to teleportation studies. Vocational colleges teaching teleporter maintenance.
Having breakfast in Berlin, then lunch on the Moon, while being back home on Mars will seem normal to people.
There's also a security risk associated. People being able to travel "too freely", bypassing border control, or security. These details will all depend on how you further define your technology.