In the Terran biosphere, co-evolution rules. Fitness of individual genes is judged in the context of the entire group of genes (see Dawkins The Selfish Gene); the biosphere itself creates the context for its members, and down to biomes and niches. Tight pairings emerge all the time.
But the specific example of Intelligence and social species cooperation seems to be unique. We domesticated crops everywhere, as do termites. Animals domesticated for various purposes have numerous examples, but (see Guns, Germs, and Steel) was lacking in the Americas. So suitable animals need to be available in the first place. Silk worms were domesticated, spiders can't be. So just because an animal provides a resource is not sufficient.
Intelligence studies with primates, other mammals, and birds gave initially odd unexpected results because of our expectations due to dogs. Turns out dogs are special in how they look to humans for information. Even not-so-smart dog breeds seem smarter because they naturally live with us OK and they behave the way we want: because the dog lets the human decide what the correct action is in the situation, and picks up cues from us.
Why did a situation like dogs only happen once? In an alien ecosystem, not only would you need sentient beings to evolve, but you also need suitable species to be available for such a role to emerge.
It's quite plausible to accept that such a situation exists for an alien world, but not likely that it would in each case. There might be different domestication/symbiotic roles that we don't have here on Earth! If you can imagine what those might be...
There might be close-living domesticated animals that followed the intelligent species into modern times, like our cats. There might be "smart" animals domesticated for some reason but not really having the same rapport as dogs do with us. I think about parrots, for example, which are not a domesticated species but only a few generations out of the wild: they are socialized and have a lifestyle that allows them to live in our homes in comfort and happiness. What if they had been used for a thousand years for some role and evolved into a domesticated species? Would they be "like dogs" or somehow be even more adapted then the socialized individuals but have a distinct and different relationship with humans?
Parrots were not domesticated for their brains. Although there are falcons, they appear to still be wild and not evolved in that role: why didn't neolithic people do that?
It's thought that dogs domesticated themselves. If they hadn't, cave men would not have initiated a multi-generation campaign to make wolves into dogs.
Animals were domesticated through use by primitive people providing selection and a niche, with the initial use being possible in the wild species. Fence in a herd instead of following it! Better meat and wool appear over time. How could an intelligent species be used by primitive people, to start the domestication process?