what a interesting question.
Most non-energy solutions have been posted already, I think. But I feel that something is missing right in your question: what do you count as "energy weapon"?
When I hear this I think of Star Wars Blaster and Turbolaser and these Weapons the Jaffa from Star Gate do carry around or proton torpedoes. Well... But you asked for a science-valid resolution. So count out all of these above, even if there might be some realism behind, if you dig deep enough.
So... still, what do you accept as an energy-weapon? And what do you accept as a piece of artillery? From what today is used, you separate into
Direct Fire Weapons and Indirect Fire Weapons. Most artillery is the second type (even if most of them can do both), but what we do understand as artillery is something that specialize hitting stuff beyond their line of sight, using calculation, observers or intelligent ammunation.
To archive this, your weaponsystem should be able to do this. Using energy.
Even further, a piece of artillery could be everything that isn't a handheld weapon. Even tanks can be artillery (no, not self propelled howitzers, real tanks), if you wrap your description carefully... At all, they are a piece of self propelled direct fire barrel based artillery with extreme crew and weapon system survivability due to well thought placing of highly resistant armor plating. But thats quite a description for a tank...
So first question to clarify: What kind of combat participant would you accept as artillery?
Second problem: what is energy? Does a random burst of hard gamma rays count? Does it need to to flash colorful? Does it need to make boom?
I want to ask you what I asked the guy who opened that Railgun vs. Gyrojet question: What the hell you want to archive using this energy-artillery? Leveling enemy installations? Keep enemies away from a given point? Performing priority target sniper shots? Provide gas or other nasty agents? Well, for that case energy weapons would be not usable... but Artillery is used for providing smoke-screens this days - especially the smaller pieces, like mortars.
So... lets take a simple approach and say, your energy-artillery would be a self propelled unit, that is tasked to do indirect fire support at a range of targets, primary to deny access to an area...
no, wait you said, your first though was that artillery shells the enemy using dematerialization ammo.
That sounds like a task for an anti-tank whatever. WW2 ones were direct-fire units, and still... if you want to make sure to hit something, you need line of sight. Either the gun itself, or someone who can aim for them (even the ammo itself does count, but you will have a hard time creating an intelligent plasma bolt). Otherwise all you would do is cutting huge holes into the battlefield, sometimes get a lucky indirect hit, what would... well, the same this days artillery do.
Here does one thing kick in, the other posters already mentioned: Energy as a weaponized wave isn't able to curve over a prop at your battlefield. Either you can ignore this and right punch through, or you need to stay with the good old ballistic shells.
And shooting through the Planet? When your enemies turn off their shields. this attack is supposed to react to, you are bad off. Even more - your position would be known if they have a way of tracking these beams. Or they get triggerd by something in the ground, like an unstable repository of ultra heavy metals. Uh... sounds like you can accidentally blow up the whole planet doing this, or at least the continental plate your units stand at. Well... your decision.
So... what to do? Whatever you want to - if you need the traits artillery is widely known for - indirect fire, providing big boom - you either stick with shells or allow some magic. Or Plasma. Its not this inefficient as one might assume. All you need to do is keep the containment intact until it hits something. Let me think... XCOM used a plastic, that is wrapped around the plasma bullet when it leaves the gun. I don't remember the details, but why not use a meta-material, that can be created like a soap bubble and transform heat-energy into magnetic fields. As soon as it hits something, that containment-thing break and whatever did cause this get a plasmasplosion right in its face. Sounds pretty mean.
Finally... when you want weapon-systems, think of us as kind of weapon companies. Tell us, what your weapon system should archive, what it may use and so on, and you might get a big idea from someone who happens to know some crazy stuff that might suit your needs. Because maybe the task you try to archive with your energy-artillery is done better by something other. Well... yea, like the satellites the others mentioned.
Have a nice day