Yes, there would certainly be numerous vanadium formations. On Earth, there are dozens of known vanadium compounds. In particular, vanadium-containing minerals would be common. You would see a lot of strange-looking rocks. For example:
- Blossite contains copper, oxygen, and vanadium. Assuming that oxygen and copper are common in your alternate world, as they are here, blossite could be found in many volcanoes. A similar situation could occur with ziesite and other such minerals.
- Vanadinite would be extremely common. It is formed from galena, a fairly abundant lead ore. With vanadium everywhere, you would see lots of awesome-looking red vanadinite crystals.
Needless to say, there are many other vanadium minerals. If vanadium were the most common mineral, it would probably be present in virtually all bauxite, as well as in tar sands and oil. Apparently this would not be good for cars.
Would you see anything particularly alien? Probably not. Pure vanadium metal does not seem to appear in nature, and all the ores that it would likely form are already present on Earth, with no peculiar properties that I know of.