From what I have learned about space and our current tech status, I could say this. Note that this information may be incomplete and sometimes misleading (an idea might be possible, but required so much expense, time or collaboration that it would be practically impossible).
These include the futuristic weapons which we are capable or producing with our current technology.
1- Chemical Lasers can produce very high energy laser beams which can pass through steel like hot knife passes through butter. One touch of this baby would be a good-nighter. However since they depend on chemical reactions, so only a space-ship cannot go on shooting this over and over till infinity.
2- Electron Lasers are more economic and can be produced over and over and over again if you have a secure high energy electric line.
3- Antimatter Weapons are based on the idea that matter and antimatter cancel out each other's existence with a mind boggling amount of energy output (released in the form of electromagnetic waves). This would THE dream weapon for all space-ships as there is no possible defense against (using current technology). However, creating antimatter in sufficient amounts is extremely, extremely costly and complex. Storage is yet another issue.
1- Guided Missiles. Heat seeking missiles were developed long ago, during Soviet-Afghan war. Now missiles can be laser targetted (very effective) and GPS targetted (useless for space battles). However, space missiles would have to carry their oxygen supply with them, which would limit their range.
2- Sniper Canons. Basically a scaled-up version of sniper rifles. Since space holds no gravity and no drag, bullets can be fired for infinite distances (unless there is a high gravity region in between). However, these could only be fired from a large space-ship as the recoil would easily put a lighter body in high-speed rotation.
Hiding, Cloaking And Other Possibilities
Hiding your space-ship from enemy depends on which technology they are using to scan the space. They could be using infra-red scanners to locate you thermally or they could be using highly sensitive magnetic field detectors which would detect your presence even if your engines were off. I don't know how radar works in space, so I cannot say anything about that.
With current tech, you cannot quickly take cover behind an asteroid belt because you might escape the enemy this way but you would almost certainly be pulverised by the asteroids. You would not hide in a large hornet's nest if you were being chased by a bear.
Also, asteroid belts are not a common commodity in space. They are far flung with vast spaces between them. It would probably take you more time reaching an asteroid belt, than it would take you to return to home planet, refuel, take off again and engage the enemy.
Boarding opponent's spaceships is a big no-no. Although you can use small rockets to hover around in space and reach the enemy's spaceship, these trips can be effectively used for placing explosive devices on the enemy ship and escaping. Unlike an ocean ship, a spaceship has no place where you can land, disembark from your rocket, roam around, eat pizzas, shoot down enemy troopers (they would never be getting out of their ship anyway) and feel like a space-pirate. No sir, not at least with the current tech.