This Query is part of the Worldbuilding Resources Article.
One crucial aspect of the climates have been left out so far, deep water circulation. It's the major force driving the heat transfer form the equator to the poles and its flow can influences local climates. Understanding the basic mechanic is important in a fictional world and it's not possible to simply say that it's like on Earth. No, because the water and landmasses are places differently, the water flow might be different.
I know that the cold waters sink down and then move toward the equator, where the density of the water is lower.
What are the other guidelines to follow?
Example of questions:
- Where does the water come back to the surface?
- Should it flow along the east or the west coast?
- What kind of configuration would make it impossible to have a worldwide conveyor?
This is part of a series of questions that tries to break down the process of creating a world from initial creation of the landmass through to erosion, weather patterns, biomes and every other related topics. Please restrict answers to this specific topic rather than branching on into other areas as other subjects will be covered by other questions.
These questions all assume an earth-like spherical world in orbit in the habitable band.
See the other questions in this series here : http://meta.worldbuilding.stackexchange.com/questions/2594/creating-a-realistic-world-series