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Im trying to figure out what weather conditions would create a large, non closed dome (more like a curved roof), on the area below. Im talking about an structure of about 3-4 square kilometers, a couple of hundred meters high, with open sides, probably the cover will start around 100 meters high. It would be located above a city in the tropical region, which usually has around 36 C in summer, with high air humidity. What do you think? It would be cold or hot inside?

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  • $\begingroup$ You're describing a large terrarium. 3-4 square kilometers isn't enough to create weather patterns beyond what you'd find in a terrarium. $\endgroup$
    – JBH
    Commented Apr 7 at 5:10
  • $\begingroup$ Something like : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biosphere_2 ? $\endgroup$
    – Pica
    Commented Apr 7 at 10:12
  • $\begingroup$ @user2929416 as JBH said there wouldn't be much weather to begin with. Like i don't think there would be wind or something. What may happen is q greenhouse affect as heat is trapped in the dome additionally moisture would remain trapped. Meaning it would likely be very tropical under the dome. $\endgroup$ Commented Apr 7 at 10:14

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There is a similar thread about the internal weather systems of the Volkshalle, though this was not in the tropics. There are cases of rain happening half-way up NASA's Vertical Assembly building, and in Zeppelin hangars.

If you have the technology to build this great dome, you can probably also install air conditioning. In which case, the internal conditions are what you want.

I am therefore guessing that this is a structure. You have not got a crowd of people inside it adding heat and humidity. If the roof is thick, then the temperature on the inside will be constant, like a giant cavern. If air can blow in form outside, then the Hang_Sơn_Đoòng cave is probably the best approximation. This is not round but 5 Km long by 200m wide. It has holes in the top, giving spaces like the Pantheon in Rome. This is not the geometry you were asking after, but if air can blow in one end and out of the other, it may give the same result.

If the roof is thin, such as a sheet metal dome suspended by ribs, then the roof will become hot in the day and cold at night. It is not clear how much water vapour would enter with the circulating air. The dome would be very hot during the day. As the air cools, water would condense on the dome at night, and you might get rain on the inside. But the water vapour would have to have come in from the outside, which makes me think it has to be drier inside than out. I think we need more details to make a prediction.

PS: Buckminster Fuller proposed in the 1960's to stick a dome over New York. This sounds the sort of scale you are proposing. In his case, it was to keep the weather - particularly snow - out. The dome would have to resist the Venturi lift in high winds, and the downward forces of rain and snow. If you are in the typhoon region of the tropics, you may have to scale up the resistance to wind accordingly. This probably rules out any super-lightweight solutions using modern materials, but it should be possible.

If the city is not producing large amounts of water vapour, then the only vapour there will be the relatively small amounts that come under the edges. The shape of the dome will raise most of any winds off this edge, so it should stay dry IMHO.

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I'm not really good at meteorology, but i think it would be hot because if its 100 meters up it is below the clouds of the region. The clouds in the tropic region on Earth are 6,100 to 18,300 meters up. This would block the rain water from landing on the city, which would maybe make it hotter because when rain hits a hot surface, the surface uses some of its thermal energy to vaporize the water. This might also mean that plants can't grow in that city.

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