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Earth is a quaint little green-and-blue marble 7,917.5 miles wide and 196,941,385 square miles in area. It's just small enough to create a busy, dynamic network of wind and ocean currents.

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These two factors are incredibly crucial in creating such a diverse range of particular climates.

Now imagine for a moment that Earth is an artificially constructed shellworld 30,599 miles wide and 2,941,277,179 square miles in area, the size of Neptune. In other words, an awful lot of space on land and many miles more so in the oceans. How will an Earth the size of Neptune differ the organization of the wind or ocean currents from actual Earth, if at all?

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    $\begingroup$ (a) Is the purpose of making it a shell world to guarantee that gravity is Earth-norm? (b) Is this world in the same orbit as Real World Earth? (As in, there's a lot more surface area to absorb heat and so nothing at all will be the same?) Or is it at a distance such that the energy absorption is identical per-meter-squared-ratioed-by-new-circumference to Real World Earth? (c) Is the rotation of this world such that the surface rotational speed is identical to Real World Earth? $\endgroup$
    – JBH
    Jan 21 at 3:58
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    $\begingroup$ You know, the more I think about it, the more things must be vastly different. You can't avoid the other side of the goldilocks coin: you can't have the identical energy absorption at all latitudes. You're either too hot in the middle or too cold at the tips (or just-right at the latitude facing the sun but too cold at the terminator, or just right at the terminator and too hot at the latitude facing the sun) - and that changes everything. $\endgroup$
    – JBH
    Jan 21 at 4:07
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    $\begingroup$ (a) Yes, for now (b) The last part, maybe. Could you clarify on how to make that outside the habitable zone? (c) Yes, for now $\endgroup$ Jan 21 at 5:03
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    $\begingroup$ Mars is considered inside the goldilocks zone for our solar system. But as I said in my second comment, I don't think there's a winning solution here. If you move the world to the orbit of Mars, its size would increase the heat content, but the poles would be very cold. If you leave it at Earth's orbit, the poles would warm up but the equator likely wouldn't be habitable for the heat. Half way in between? maybe a very hot tropical equator and "earthlike" poles? Still, your wind and currents would be very different. $\endgroup$
    – JBH
    Jan 21 at 5:50

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