The TLDR for this is if I have a planet that is twice the diameter of Earth, (so four times the surface area), would continental distribution have more effect on the weather patterns than the sun and distances between the equator and the poles? Gravity is the same as Earth
More detail, this world is in a different universe that has magic, it's part of the universe from the ground up and has its own set of rules just like gravity, time, and space do here in our own world. For the purposes of this question all you need is that magic interacts with gravity in a way that reduces its effect on smaller bodies but not on larger bodies. To this end, the planet in question is roughly twice the diameter of Earth and has the same gravity as Earth, a planet the size of Jupiter would experience almost no gravitational effects from magic and neither would the stars. Due to the effects of said magic, even though the planet is much larger, atmospheric pressure would be no higher than that of Earth, the magic is a constant effect throughout, it is simply an extra physical law that affects this universe on top of our normal ones.
The planet has an even spread of oceans and continents but overall it's around 50/50 land to ocean as opposed to the 30/70 ish distribution here on Earth. There are three moons, two that are on a similar scale of Earth to our moon, both in a tight orbit with each other, the third is smaller and on the other side of the planet. There is an active magma core with tectonic activity being similar to Earth, although some tectonic plates are much larger than we have here, volcanic activity is similar to Earth.
Atmospheric composition is similar to Earth, overall the globe is similar on average to that of Earth, meaning that some of the equatorial regions are just outside of the range that humans would be able to live and survive in anything other than very small numbers, if at all. There are frozen poles similar to ours, but if you take into account that the planet has four times the surface area then again, the area around the poles that can sustain life is much further away from the poles than it is on Earth. I'm making the assumption that the poles and very hot equatorial regions are the way they are because of direct influence from the sun mixed with atmospheric composition, similar to how things work on Earth.
So my question is, if I want similar weather patterns to Earth, would the even distribution of continents and having connected oceans to allow for a thermal/saline circulation be enough to have the weather patterns I desire? Or should I factor in a variable that I've not yet thought of?
The two moons in close orbit are specifically so that tides are more variable, both moons at the right point in their orbit will cause very high tides, which would make coastal towns more of a challenge. One thing I'm completely unsure of is how this would also affect the weather systems.
I'm aware that weather is seriously chaotic, so I'm just looking for something that's believable and feels like it would work in the setting described. If there's something I've overlooked then I'd like to get it right now rather than after I've put in 200 hours working on maps!