# How to make electro kinetic immune to electricity

In my hard science world there is a character that can output electrons around 30000 volts and around 50,000 amps.The problem is that they would instantly die every time they use their ability. So I had an idea and thought superconducting cells would work but there aren’t any ways this could work so can somebody please help. Thank you in advance.

• Is this ability common to the character's race/species, or is this a unique superpower? If the latter, I don't think a justification is necessarily required; electrical superpowers usually have the Required Secondary Abilities unless there's a narrative reason they wouldn't. We don't question why Black Lightning is immune to electricity or why Banshee doesn't blow out his own eardrums. If it's a biological ability, you're probably grounding it (pun notwithstanding) in reality, so it makes more sense to come up with a scientific explanation. Commented Sep 20, 2023 at 21:50
• Hi, Lightning. Your units are a little off. Your character would be able to generate a charge measured in columbs. A columb is the amount of energy that is transferred at one amp per second. If you really want it to be hard science, your character would build up a charge like 50,000 columbs. Volts is a measure of electrical pressure. 30000 volts would specify a spark gap of about 10 cm, after which you would need to calculate the resistance in the gap to determine how much would discharge in volts and amps. Very math intensive. Commented Sep 20, 2023 at 23:39
• How do you have a hard science world where a character has electro-kinesis? And if it is not SO hard science, then just say he is immune. Commented Sep 21, 2023 at 12:05
• Why these figures? 50kA at 30 kV is 150 MW. How long does this character output this? Why are they providing pulsed power? Why do they die? What is the connection with superconductors? I suggest you start with what they are (organic life?) and why they produce power (shooting lighting as defence) and we can figure out how much power they need, and how they might do it. A lightening attack would be a lot easier directed down a stream of salt water or a taser wire. Commented Sep 29, 2023 at 12:42

# You're forgetting Ohm's Law in your design.

By defining the Voltage and the Amperage, you have inadvertently defined the resistance too. V=IR, so 30,000=50,000*0.6. So you have to have 0.6 Ohms of total resistance for your equation to come out right. No superconductor or other substance will fundamentally change this fact.

Additionally, I think you might be a little ambitious about how much power your character in a hard science world can output. Your character can generate 1,500 MW of power (Power=Volts*Amps), while Hoover Dam only provides 700 MW.

• Makes sense I was having fun with a homopolar generator as an electric organ Commented Sep 21, 2023 at 1:47
• The hoover dam generates 700MW constantly, presumably your hero isn't outputting the all the time. You could instead have supercapacitive cells, but they have their own issues (think Note 7, but inside your body) and it also means now they can be electrocuting themselves randomly whenever Commented Sep 21, 2023 at 8:26

One of the fun things about electricity is that it repels itself. It's all negatively charged, and like charges repel. That's why your hair sticks out when you touch an electrostatic generator.

Your character doesn't need superconductivity through his entire body, he just needs it on his skin. This would make his skin an effective Tesla cage. How the electricity gets from inside his body to his skin is up to you.

There would be unusual side-effects of this. Superconductivity isn't just for electricity. For instance, if he touched a hotplate, the heat would immediately be distributed across his entire skin. You could theoretically extend that to kinetic energy, too. I've seen examples of superfluids that, when you spin the container, the superfluid inside the container breaks down into numerous vortices in order to evenly distribute the kinetic energy.

But really, this is superheroes, so you decide how far you want to take it.

• By the way are there any superconductors that would work for this Commented Sep 21, 2023 at 1:48
• There are no superconductors at standard temperature and pressure, that we know of, but we all think that it's just a matter of time before someone finds one. Graphene or nanotubes might work. Commented Sep 21, 2023 at 3:04
• "Superconductivity isn't just for electricity. For instance, if he touched a hotplate, the heat would immediately be distributed across his entire skin" Huh? Electric superconductors are terrible conductors of heat. Commented Sep 28, 2023 at 17:29
• @NuclearHoagie, not exactly true. Today's superconductors fail to transmit heat because the moment you heat them, they lose superconductivity. This makes it nearly impossible to measure their heat conductivity, but doesn't mean they do it poorly. I would love to see an example of someone actually measuring the heat conductivity of a superconductor while it stays superconducting. I will concede that the behavior of room-temperature superconductors is entirely speculative. Commented Sep 28, 2023 at 20:45

Frame Challenge

We have Electric Eels on planet earth, Whilst they aren't outputting the energy that you are talking about (toping out at about 800 volts) - As of time of writing, we don't definitively know why they don't shock themselves.

Some theories have suggests that they contort their bodies in such a way that any charges don't traverse their heart. Other theories point to the fact their vital organs are contained within the first 1/5th of their body, the rest being used for Electricity generation...

But we still don't know how they do it

And if we don't know how it works on a real life creature in the real world, then perhaps you don't need a hard science explanation, other than something like 'they seem to have some way of not being affected, just like an Electric Eel'

• My current idea is having the resistance of the skin greatly increased while having another super conductive layer of skin that acts as a faraday cage would that work Commented Sep 20, 2023 at 21:25

### Training

Assuming that they were not just gifted with this power one day at full capacity, this is a level of power that they had to work up to. They have built up their ability to harness power safely over the course of years to be able to output that kind of power.

The final result of the training is not only do they control the lightning to do what the user wants to do with it, they also control it so it does not give them a lethal feedback.

In one aspect, this works because they still have to control the electricity entirely and are actively doing it. Should their concentration lapse enough, then that power will take the shortest route to ground. Likewise they are always controlling it so that it can't hurt them -- doubly so if they have some internal source of their electric powers.

As a demonstration of training, I offer Pokemon -- specifically good ol' #25. Pikachu has fairly good control over its electric powers. By contrast, it's pre-evolution Pichu does not. Pokedex lore specifically states that it does not have good control over its electricity and it is reflected inthe games by only learning weak electric attacks. Also, the Smash Brothers games actually show this lore tidbit by the little mouse taking damage when it uses its electric attacks.

The comparison is that your electrokinetic does not control power well in the beginning. However, through experience, training, and likely a few unpleasant shocks, they have learned how to control the power at their command until they too can Thunderbolt with the best of them.