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To begin, my star is a K type star with 0.65 solar masses. I've inserted my star's mass in two different templates to calculate the frost line, yielding different results (2 AU and 2.68 AU). Furthermore, I haven't found a way to even calculate the "ice line", where ice giants would be able to form.

Could anyone provide me with the correct formula's/statistics? Thanks in advance!

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  • $\begingroup$ Are the frost line and ice line not the same thing? Wikipedia(not the most trustworthy source) states that the frost line is also known as the ice line. $\endgroup$
    – Martamo
    Jun 4, 2023 at 1:14

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There is no "correct" formula for calculating the frost line of a star. There are various formulas, based on different models, and each formula depends on parameters which have some degree of freedom in way they are assigned.

On top of that, we have directly measured only 1 stellar system, ours, so making a statistic on a single data point is not exactly the dream of a statistician.

Even for our solar system the estimates on the position of the frost line vary with the models, therefore I would be happy with the range you have got from the calculators you have found online. Take the average of them or the more conservative, depending on what you want to do.

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  • $\begingroup$ Thank you, I'll take the avarage. Though, would you by any chance know anything about the ice line? $\endgroup$
    – Explunky
    Jun 3, 2023 at 18:12
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This site as a few paragraphs on how to calculate the frost line but I don’t understand any of it.

To figure out my planetary system I used the Worldsmith by Artifexian. I plugged in your stellar mass and the frost line came out as 2.049 AU, which is in between what you got from the online calculators. The spreadsheet has a lot of helpful things in it. I highly recommend it.

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