23
$\begingroup$

A brain is sort of like a computer. It stores information, has multiple processes, and can compute and calculate. I have learned in computer science intro about a program that used to be popular for DOS attacks called the LOIC. The LOIC would repeatedly send packets of data to a target computer. The more packets were sent, the more likely the computer would crash. A similar method is the Ping of Death.

The basic premise is simple: bombard a information processor with so much information that it overloads. But the brain is like an I formation processor. So I thought of a device that could add or delete data from a human mind, but that did not discriminate between the types of data.

So, if the brain is bombarded by, for instance, 50Tbps of random data, directly inputted into the brain by an electrode, then would the brain have reduced function?

Note that I do not want to just melt the brain, high voltage would be enough for that. I would like to overload the brain with information.

TL,DR, if given a human brain, a way to inject digital information into the brain, and a way to generate terabits of random data, and given realistic physiology of human brains, can a brain be overloaded to the point of failure, via information, not by voltage/energy?

Edit: stimulation of neurons by electricity is what I mean by inject digital data.

$\endgroup$
7
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ Comments have been moved to chat; please do not continue the discussion here. Before posting a comment below this one, please review the purposes of comments. Comments that do not request clarification or suggest improvements usually belong as an answer, on Worldbuilding Meta, or in Worldbuilding Chat. Comments continuing discussion may be removed. $\endgroup$
    – L.Dutch
    May 24, 2023 at 13:47
  • 23
    $\begingroup$ This happens all the time. People panic, lose situational awareness, etc. Brain doesn't stop to function but it doesn't function effectively. Same with computers, they don't stop working, just become overloaded and don't reasonably do anything. btw I guess you're asking about DOS, not DDOS. $\endgroup$ May 24, 2023 at 21:22
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ See also: the OODA loop. en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/OODA_loop This is what an anti-human DOS/DDOS would be intending to disrupt. $\endgroup$
    – sdfgeoff
    May 25, 2023 at 6:39
  • 5
    $\begingroup$ For the sake of the wording: DDoS means "Distributed Denial of Service", which in turn means "do something that will make the service unuseable, and do that from different places". You are asking a very specific question: "can you send a lot of data from various places to the brain so that it stops working". I am not sure this is what you intended to ask. $\endgroup$
    – WoJ
    May 25, 2023 at 10:05
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Sensory overload is distributed, and denies the use of the "brain service". $\endgroup$
    – RonJohn
    May 26, 2023 at 17:08

16 Answers 16

49
$\begingroup$

The original version of this question was about putting electrodes into people's brains to inject lots of data at higher and higher frequency until the brain stops working

If you wire up really fast pulses to every neuron (or enough neurons) in someone's brain you cause a seizure because that is basically what a seizure is. The neurons stop pulsing in useful ways and start pulsing randomly.

We don't really know what causes epileptic people's neurons to pulse randomly, but we do know if you force a person's neurons to start pulsing randomly they'll have a seizure.

It's nothing to do with "too much data" - it's simply because you interfered with the normal function of the brain by blocking the useful signals everywhere and injecting useless signals. If you put random data onto a wire in a computer while it is running and it crashes, is it "because of the data overload" or is it simply because you stopped it from working right? You could just as well have cut the wire with no data, and the computer still would have crashed. (Cutting a single neuron won't break a brain, but cutting all the neurons at the same time certainly will)

$\endgroup$
9
  • $\begingroup$ I don't know what the context is for this, but I could see this concept being used as a weapon (especially a nonlethal one or for otherwise-difficult-to-injure targets). Sci-fi up something about how the tech works like a microwave, stimulating the neurons, and you could have the equivalent of a biological EMP grenade that scrambles brains for a bit, or a classic Sci-Fi stunner that incapacitates people nonlethally. You could even put the tech in handcuffs/collar/etc and use it to disable prisoners if they attempt an escape. $\endgroup$
    – Aos Sidhe
    May 23, 2023 at 22:06
  • 20
    $\begingroup$ @AosSidhe - epilepsy is only non-lethal in the same sense as a TASER is nonlethal, and for much the same reason - having randomly-firing neurons triggering muscle groups can break bones, cause cardiac issues, result in choking... $\endgroup$
    – jdunlop
    May 23, 2023 at 22:57
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ That's actually not quite what happens in epilepsy. Individual neurons aren't firing like crazy but the ones that are firing all fire at the same time. $\endgroup$ May 24, 2023 at 19:30
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Does this really count as a DDOS? DDOS is a specific type of attack on a computer by sending it a vast amount of data to process. That data clogs the data path so that valid data can't get through. It's not just anything that overloads the computer and causes it to crash. $\endgroup$
    – Barmar
    May 24, 2023 at 21:53
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ The closest analogy I can think of in a human is shining a glaring light in their eyes, so they can't see anything else, and playing loud music so they can't hear speech. This doesn't cause the brain to shut down, it just makes it hard for it to interact with the outside world usefully. $\endgroup$
    – Barmar
    May 24, 2023 at 21:55
43
$\begingroup$

There are actually less than leathal weapons that act as a type of DDOS attack on humans. Consider a Flash-Bang Grenade, which isn't designed to produce shrapnel but to create a bright flash and loud sound that overload your ability to recieve optical and audio communication (A DDOS attack isn't creating too much memory inside a system to shut it down, but creating too much input communication for the computer to process without performance issues. The recieving system isn't shut down... it's slowed down because it's not equipped for the size of the traffic... once the traffic is reduced, it's functional again.).

In terms of memory storage, the human brain is thought to be capable of holding more digital memory than modern super computers by orders of magnitude. Acording to Scientific American, the average human brain is capable of holding 2.5 petabytes of digital information... or 2.5 million gigabytes. To put this into an amount of information that's easy to conceptualize, if a TIVO device had the storage capabality of a human brain, and that device was set to record a single television channel non-stop until it had no available memory, the resulting recording would capture the channels entire broadcast for the next 300 years.

That said, one problem with this is that we do not know how much space in digital memory a human memory will fill. Additionally, human memory is extended in part by the brain's ability to purge non-essential and infrequently used information as it deems necessary (As seen in Pixar's Inside Out, this is not always a logical process and results in some oddities like my inability to recall all but a handful of U.S. Presidents, but I'm still able to sing the double-mint gum jingle, despite never enjoying the gum, let alone that brand, and the advertisement jingle being discontinued nearly 2 decades ago... at least the KitKat Bar Jingle still gets uses.).

Suffice to say, it's highly unlikely to cause a human brain to crash from memory overload. It's highly efficient at managing that. But it's able to "DDOS" a brain by over stimulating sensory input.

$\endgroup$
4
  • 4
    $\begingroup$ my inability to recall all but a handful of U.S. Presidents, but I'm still able to sing the double-mint gum jingle, despite never enjoying the gum, let alone that brand, and the advertisement jingle being discontinued nearly 2 decades ago... at least the KitKat Bar Jingle still gets uses. I'm with you on all of that. And today I was in Costco and they were giving out Pringles samples. I sang the old "fever for the flavor" jingle and the woman handing them out, quite a bit younger than me, didn't seem to know what I was talking about. $\endgroup$ May 24, 2023 at 3:05
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ "The human brain is thought to be capable of holding more digital memory than modern super computers by orders of magnitude" - the numbers you're quoting here are orders of magnitude smaller than this computer's storage system from two years ago: tomshardware.com/news/… The brain has much more storage than a typical desktop, but more than modern supercomputers? Not by a long shot. $\endgroup$ May 24, 2023 at 13:26
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ @NuclearHoagie I stand corrected. In my defense, the article was from the mid -2010s I believe and computer memory is famous for how quickly it increases in size. $\endgroup$
    – hszmv
    May 24, 2023 at 13:57
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ This is the answer. A true DDOS doesn't need to be useless or senseless data. It could be legitimate requests to a system, just too many for the system to process. The reality is that DDOS attacks frequently use senseless data. Given the question (humans receive data about the outside world via their senses) I think this answer fits best. $\endgroup$ May 24, 2023 at 21:01
24
$\begingroup$

That is like being struck by 20 lightning bolts

50Tbps of data would require 400 trillion electrical impulses a second. Keep in mind that the brain works at MUCH higher voltages and lower frequencies than a microprocessor; so, at 70 milivolts per impulse, you'd need to input about 6 billion volts of electricity to do this. That is 20 times the voltage of an average lightning bolt directed straight into a person's head. Not only would this much electricity cause the person's brain to explode, but probably the whole room he was standing in along with him.

That said, there is no reason any sane person would install electrodes in their brain that are capable of inputting this much data. In all likelihood, the manufacturer of the electrodes would not make it possible for the electrodes to transmit at more than 70 milivolts meaning that you could not make an impulse strong enough to overcome a neuron's minimum sensitivity threshold to constitute any change in the brain state AND fast enough to transmit data faster than the neurons can handle, in this case what you are suggesting is impossible. The input device would cap out at what the brain can handle, and there is nothing hazardous to worry about as the recipient. At most, a low frequency random noise generator could cause some weird hallucinations and memory interference, and make it really hard to focus on anything happening outside of your mind... but once the attack is over, your brain would resume normal function just like an IRL DDoS attack.

Now, a non-random attack could perhaps shut down control over the parts of your brain that regulate vital organs... but again, what kind of manufacturer would create electrodes that could interfere with vital brain functions. Any half thought out brain implant will only give the interface access to parts of the brain that can't kill you.

Original Answer Below invalidated by Changes to the question

They are doable, and quite common

First, lets clarify that a DoS (Denial of Service) attack is specifically an attack that sends fake or pointless requests to a system such that you use up its ability to process them all so that you prevent the system from processing important jobs. An effective DoS attack balances requiring a lot of time and resources of the target, and minimal time and resources of the attacker allowing a bad actor to invest little resources to cause a lot of wasted resources of the victim. A DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attack is a specific kind of DoS attack where you use a group of attackers instead of one. This does 2 things: (1) it can make it harder to filter out spam requests from legitimate requests and (2) it opens up more avenues of attack by taking less work on the primary attackers part if he's offloading most of the spam work itself onto other systems. DDoS attacks are often not done by a group of bad actors, but a single bad actor who's tricked innocent actors into performing requests on their behalf.

Social DDoS Attacks

To picture how this can work against humans on a social level, imagine there is a restaurant that has a policy that lets you order a meal, and then pay for it when you pick it up. Now imagine you want to deprive the real customers of service for some reason. You could call in an order of 200 hamburgers forcing the kitchen to stop processing real orders to fill your 200 hamburger order... then you just never show up to pay. This is a denial of service attack performed against the human brain because the human brain requires a lot of processing to respond to this simple request. But... humans can easily tell that a 200 burger order is sketchy and filter it out of normal orders by deprioritizing it... just like computer DoS attacks are pretty easy to recognize and control through good load balancing.

This is where the "Distributed" part of a DDoS attack comes in. Instead of calling in 1 order for 200 burgers, you could call in 100 orders for 1-3 burgers each. Because these orders are all normal orders in appearance, the restaurant's cook does not know how to filter or prioritize the fake orders; so, they have to make all the orders with the same priority causing a less controllable denial of service to real customers.

But, just like good software design can minimize but not eliminate the impact of a DDoS attack, good thinking can minimize a DDoS against a human system as well. You do this by minimizing how much a malicious actor can ask of you before they prove they are not a malicious actor. For example, your restaurant can start asking to validate the credit card before they take the order so they can't waist your time and kitchen materials on a fake order... granted, you can still DDoS a restaurant by keeping their receptionist busy with fake, short phone calls, but this takes a lot more effort of the attacker to actually overwhelm the human system.

This is of course just one example, but any time you maliciously ask a lot of things of someone just to keep them too busy to do what they want/need to do, it is some kind of DoS attack. If you have kids, you probably handle several social DDoS attacks a day.

Neurological DDoS attacks

The human neurological system can also be directly DoSed. Every time someone falls victim to any kind of slight of hand or misdirection, they have been DoSed. Most human senses are processed by the thalamus before making its way to the prefrontal cortex for selective processing. The human mind is constantly flooded with about 10x more input than we can consciously process, and our thalamus/PFC makes sure that only as much input makes it through for processing as we can handle. If your mind is busy working on solving (or ignoring) a problem, you will consciously see/hear/feel less to make sure you don't get overwhelmed. In layman's terms we call this "focus".

A guard will not notice a person slip by if they are distracted by a conversation. If you run into someone, all the simultaneous signals of being touched in a lot of places will make it so that you will not process the specific feeling of someone slipping their hand into your pocket to take your wallet. If a magician is breathing fire, you will not notice them swapping out the deck of cards on the table you are supposed to be keeping track of. All of these tricks rely on a form of DDoS attack to prevent the victim from processing something you don't want them to notice by filling their available processing power with distractions.

$\endgroup$
11
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ The restaurant scenarios are not akin to a DoS on the human brain, which is what the question asks for. By overloading the restaurant staff with too many orders, you are actually just DDoS-ing the restaurant/business itself by taking up all the staff capacity. The orders are in a queue that the staff members can only process at a certain rate, regardless of whether you add 2 or 2000 orders to the queue; the rest of the orders will just sit there waiting until they are reached. The individual staff members continue working at the same rate, regardless of how many orders are in the queue. $\endgroup$
    – BadHorsie
    May 25, 2023 at 14:30
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ @BadHorsie That is not how restaurants actually work. If you've ever worked in one, especially fast-food, you know that workers do not just do things in the order they appear (even if the computer and employee handbook tells them they are supposed to). The employees are constantly making decisions about when to do the restaurant or the drive through first or when to hold a large order and focus on smaller ones. Or when to jump the queue on an order because the fries are still cooking, but someone 3 spots down the line just wants a burger. $\endgroup$
    – Nosajimiki
    May 25, 2023 at 14:59
  • 4
    $\begingroup$ @BadHorsie You seem to misunderstand how DDoS attacks actually work then. They don't cause computers to just blow up or shut down either. All a DDoS attack does is queues up more requests than a system has the time to respond to. The computer continues to function just fine as a computer, nothing crashes, it just waists so much time on fake requests that real requests take too long to fulfill. It is generally not the server, that crashes, but clients that timeout and abandon their request if it takes too long... just like a human might abandon a restaurant that takes too long to serve them $\endgroup$
    – Nosajimiki
    May 25, 2023 at 17:28
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Actually crashing a computer requires some kind of data injection that creates an error in the code designed to process it. Something designed to "shut down" the human brain would have to more closely resemble a buffer overflow or script injection type attack. $\endgroup$
    – Nosajimiki
    May 25, 2023 at 17:30
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ @BadHorsie Stops working does not mean shut down. DDoS attacks can not shut down a system. What they do is cause them to stop working until the system fulfills thier queue of tasks, then they go back to normal operations. They don't cause computers to overclock, burn up, or shut down at all (that is Hollywood nonsense); so, suggesting that a DDoS against a human brain should make it start thinking 10x as fast and blow up is ridiculous. The human brain queues both physical and mental tasks which take time. A DDoS attack against the human mind will aim to fill up one of these queues. $\endgroup$
    – Nosajimiki
    May 30, 2023 at 19:43
19
$\begingroup$

Some neurodivergent people may be easily overwhelmed by overstimulation. For example, people with ASD (Autism Spectrum Disorder) are often vulnerable to excesses of noise, touch, and light. If unable to avoid the stimulation, the person can experience a meltdown with very strong emotions, or a mental shutdown. It can feel as though thinking is impossible until the stimulation is removed, and the sufferer may even be unable to communicate. Furthermore, the amount of stimulation that counts as "too much" can be much lower for an ASD person that it is for most neurotypical people.

For these people, what is essentially a DOS attack is often possible and sometimes even trivial.

$\endgroup$
1
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ correct. I suffer from exactly that and the result is a mental shutdown. I've come very close to people calling an ambulance for me multiple times as the symptoms in me look very similar to those of a stroke. $\endgroup$
    – jwenting
    May 25, 2023 at 4:44
11
$\begingroup$

As a parent who experienced taking care of a newborn, I am fully convinced this is not only real, but also 'Baby Brain' is the real life manifestation of it.

$\endgroup$
2
  • 3
    $\begingroup$ FYI: Baby Brain typically refers to the fugue like state caused by pregnancy hormones and nursing. A mother can be perfectly rested, not overwhelmed at all, and still be forgetful and easily confused due to the hormones. You probably mean Postpartum Fatigue which refers to the exhaustion of child birth and infant care itself. $\endgroup$
    – Nosajimiki
    May 24, 2023 at 15:33
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ This answer could probably use a bit more elaboration to explain what you're talking about for those who aren't already familiar with it (i.e. what is "baby brain", and how does it match the description of "DDOS-ing a human brain"?). $\endgroup$
    – V2Blast
    May 25, 2023 at 15:59
6
$\begingroup$

You can, sort of. A brain overloaded with information won't stop working as such, but it will fail to process more of it, and beyond a certain point it will fail to process important information too. For an example that you may have experienced yourself, think back to the first time you drove a car, and how everything just seemed to happen all at once with no rhyme or reason.

$\endgroup$
8
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ You can literally shut down the brain to the absolute basic functions or even less: When someone has an epileptic seizure, that's pretty much what happens. And for some people, there are clearly ways to achieve THAT. $\endgroup$
    – Trish
    May 24, 2023 at 8:15
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ technically it is on some level: for an epileptic person, quickly changing light information (e.g.: flashes of light, such as from a game or film) or noise spikes can lead to a seizure. It's a very specific type of information (switch) overload (number of light changes) and the pattern is poorly understood, but it is information for our sensors (eyes, ears) $\endgroup$
    – Trish
    May 24, 2023 at 9:00
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ we have some understanding what can trigger an epileptic seizure, but we have no idea what causes someone to be subject to it, how the mechanism works and more. For example ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8219495 elaborates on it: we can understand and classify the types of triggers, even understand that a specific person has specific triggers, but we don't understand the mechanisms of it - which is the main poorly understood part of it. We do know very well that it is specific triggers (that usually of the on-off type in fast succession) and we have been... $\endgroup$
    – Trish
    May 24, 2023 at 9:30
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ ...able to replicate seizure modes as well as verify triggers in the lab for people that are subject to an epileptic seizure to begin with. So far we don't know how to induce that. $\endgroup$
    – Trish
    May 24, 2023 at 9:34
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ I agree. If you want to see how just a little bit of information can kill you by causing you to stop processing critical information, try texting while driving. (This can legit kill you or others, so seriously -- don't actually text and drive, please) $\endgroup$
    – Wyck
    May 26, 2023 at 5:57
5
$\begingroup$

Analysis Paralysis

In Board Gaming circles this is called Analysis Paralysis, and occurs when you have many choices, and those choices all have consequences and/or lead to other choice paths. It's why something as simple as Chess or Go are actually quite hard to master.

In Supermarkets and other Retail stores this can be an issue as well, and it's the reason you usually only see 3-7 brands for any particular type of product ... too many choices overwhelms our ability to make an informed decision.

I'm not aware of any sort information overload that would lead actual death, but it is reasonable to expect that too much information could easily lead to an inability to deal with whatever the source of the information is from.

See also Snow Crash by Neal Stephenson

$\endgroup$
2
  • 1
    $\begingroup$ Some retail stores do it on purpose. Basically the same item, but from a dozen brands and in multiple, slightly differing versions. Add loud music and flashy animated displays in the store as well. All to trick you into making an almost random selection so they have a high chance you will pick the one that is old stock and/or over-priced. (Overwhelmed buyers often have a subconscious tendency to not go for the cheaper stuff, assuming pricier==better.) They place that over-priced stuff in the most prominent positions on the shelves too. It is their business model. $\endgroup$
    – Tonny
    May 26, 2023 at 14:03
  • $\begingroup$ You're correct ... and this is also true for stuff like toilet paper math, hot dogs and buns coming in different quantities and many other things. $\endgroup$
    – aslum
    May 28, 2023 at 3:19
5
$\begingroup$

As is usually the case: relevant XKCD

Nerd Sniping

Nerd Sniping

$\endgroup$
2
  • 2
    $\begingroup$ Ok, now I can't get back to work before solving it... You DoSed me :-) $\endgroup$
    – Rmano
    May 26, 2023 at 6:40
  • $\begingroup$ The answer is 3. 1... 2... (SLURP!) 3. $\endgroup$
    – Michael
    May 26, 2023 at 19:43
4
$\begingroup$

Yes - by overloading the inputs in such a way that the brain HAS to continue working on the inputs, thus not having any spare capacity to do anything else. Haptic overstimuli are probably the best (worst?) way to do it, we evolved in such a way we just cannot ignore them, they can be quite intense, and if intense enough, the brain will just stop its higher level functions and revert to animal state, subject to primitive instincts just trying to stop the DDOS ...

In fact, this has been used quite often in the past, it is sometimes used even today and if prolonged, the person might even not fully recover from the DDOS when it stops.

$\endgroup$
2
$\begingroup$

I am surprised nobody so far mentioned the IMHO most direct representation of DDoS on real people in real life which are:

Loud and crowded spaces

Most people just cannot concentrate or perform anything beyond quite simple mental tasks if there is too much stimuli and the most common manifestations are subways, shopping malls or raves. The best one can do if they want to perform a mentally challenging task in such environment is to try to get away from the stimuli - close eyes, cover ears, nose, ... but that's not fully possible for noise or touch and you can make it impossible even for visual stimuli by forcing the target to react to a specific stimulus hidden among all the distractions (e.g. trying to follow your friend in the crowd).

Smells are also potent inhibitors of reasoning capacity that can be pretty hard to avoid.

You can somewhat accommodate by repeated exposure, but anybody who has experienced sudden entrance into a new environment that is more overwhelming than what they are used to will tell you that this can be extremely difficult to handle and is basically a DoS attack (e.g. first time visit to a big town for a small town resident, getting out of the New Delhi airport as an European, ...)

$\endgroup$
1
$\begingroup$

It is said that very shocking news, or sudden news that give you strong grief, can make you unable to go on, make you just seat and do nothing but stare or mourn, for a while. That would be a DOS attack.

For a DDOS, just pile up more bad news one after the other.

$\endgroup$
1
$\begingroup$

This might not seem obvious but you can acheive that with sensory overload, in one or more sense, let me explain:

Visual - Bright flashing colors the faster the better

Auditory - Sounds that are supposed to resemble words but mean nothing or even better high/low frequency's with large wave lengths

Tactile - This is trickier IMO because it works best if the person cant see whats actually touching it, so while the disorienting lights hit someone face you could throw them into water (humans cant feel wet) and it would confuse them a lot.

Taste - Spicy,Bitter any extreme works

Smell - There exists a Chemical that is the actual smell of putrefaction which would make anyone overwhelmed very quick

The best one would be a combination of light and sound, you cant hear and see you cant do anything.

if by DDOS you mean making someone stop it theyr tracks and just freeze, the better explanation i can come up with would be some kind of hypnosis (Fringe has a really good episode about it, GREEN GREEN GREEN RED)

$\endgroup$
1
$\begingroup$

There are several products that do this quite effectively... Twitter, Facebook, snapchat, Instagram, tiktok, fox news...

or get one of these...

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LED_incapacitator

$\endgroup$
1
$\begingroup$

Air France 447 was downed by such an attack.

The automated systems were like "OMG broken system X" for dozens of systems at once. Each one demanding pilots work a page-long checklist. This was impracticable, so it created pandemonium.

In the chaos, CRM broke down and one pilot forgot their basics. Which they hadn't used since flight school because automation always does that.

$\endgroup$
1
$\begingroup$

Yes - if enough people yell at a person, you can not hear him. The service that is denied is the information he may want to tell you. His brain is ok, just like a server under a DDoS attack is ok. But the transmission does not work.

And yes, it needs to be a distributed attack, a DDoS, multiple people need to yell at you at the same time from different locations.

To be very clear - an internet server under a DDoS attack is normally perfectly healthy, just a little warmer. The service is there, but it is denied to the remote users by overwhelming the connection.

$\endgroup$
0
$\begingroup$

It occurs to me that maybe overload is not what we are looking for. I mean, if we get distracted while someone is talking to us, that seems to be a DOS. Everyone distracting, a DDOS. Happens all the time. I do tend to agree with the seizure analogy though. Photonics is the physical science of light waves. It deals with the science behind the generation, detection and manipulation of light. The human brain has a tendency to become entrained by light in what has been called FFE, or Frequency Following Effect. That is, when we observe light flashing at a frequency, the brainwaves have a tendency to become entrained to that frequency. I know that flashing lights have induced seizures in people.

Light patterns generated by a computer were able to control the speed of cardiac waves, their direction as well as the orientation – in real time.
Dr Emilia Entcheva, Stony Brook University.

That could be weaponized in a heartbeat, pun intended. one only needs find the correct frequency to cause a disruption, the DOS, and they could be reset to whatever frequency or state that you want to entrain them to once done with the DOS.

$\endgroup$

You must log in to answer this question.