There are numerous genetic qualities that cause this effect.
One of them is called flushing. When eliminating alcohol from your body, one of the intermediate stages is to convert the alcohol to acetaldehyde. Your body quickly breaks that down, too, preventing it from accumulating. In some people, however, that second part doesn't work, so the acetaldehyde builds up in an uncomfortable manner.
This genetic variation is relatively common in Asia, and is the chemical basis of the drug disulfiram, which was tried as a treatment for alcoholism for decades. Serious alcoholics would drink through the flushing, sometimes hospitalizing themselves.
Another path would be to block alcohol's ability to release endorphin, or to block your ability to respond to endorphins while drinking. Endorphin is a shortcut to learning, teaching our body that excitement and exertion are beneficial to us. Alcohol simulates exertion and excitement, making us release endorphin, tricking us into thinking that alcohol is beneficial to us.
This is the basis of using naltrexone and noloxone for the treatment of alcoholism and other opioid addictions. Initial attempts at taking advantage of this knowledge produced little benefit because, once you stopped taking the drug, the desire to drink rebounded. Later, with the development of The Sinclair Method, Pavlovian extinction was harnessed to reduce this specific cause of alcoholism.
Thus, if you want a genetic shift that would eliminate the use of alcohol, you should have alcohol also release endorphin blockers that prevent Pavlovian conditioning from taking root in the first place. Either that, or heighten the neurotoxic side-effects like dizziness so that the drinker is driven to puke like a sea-sick land lubber before they get seriously drunk.