In a story I'm writing, I have a group of beings who can learn any language by just listening to voice-recordings* of someone speaking that language over-and-over again** (almost like a highly upgraded version of how all of us learned to speak our parents' languages while we were preschoolers). The beings only have to hear the language samples around 3-5 times (less, if it's one of the more skilled beings among their number) before being able to speak those portions of the language themselves.
This question does not ask how such a thing would be possible; but rather, it asks if beings such as these could still have verbal information hidden from them by someone speaking in verbal cyphers or codewords*** while in their presence, similar to how, even though as a preschooler, I could speak American English fluently, my parents could still keep me from understanding the things they said by verbally spelling them instead of saying them outright). I hope that this is the case, as the story I'm writing involves a fair degree of espionage. If, for some reason, these beings' hyperfast-immersion language learning would also make it so that verbal cyphers and codewords wouldn't work on them, then I would also appreciate a handwavium explanation that I could give to make it so that verbal cyphers and codewords would still work on them.
*The language the beings are trying to learn does not have to be a recording, though. They can also listen to/in on speakers of a language they're trying to learn firsthand.
**If these beings listen to a voice-recording of a conversation that uses only 200 of the words in the language they're trying to learn, then the beings will only know those 200 words; thus, these beings have to listen to large speech samples to get a grasp on the language as a whole. That being said, these beings learn how to speak what portions of a language they've been exposed to within 3–5 repetitions of exposure to it (only 1–2, if it's the more skilled beings among their number).
***That is, spoken cyphers and codewords, like when, in a spy movie, two agents walk up to each other and say things like: "The eagle has the delta worm in its umbrella." "Good, then the sun will rise on an icy tower." For simplicity's sake, we can leave translation/decoding of written material with written cyphers and codewords out of this discussion.