Whoops! Looks like I screwed up somewhere in my calculations, so I edited the question's calculations and corrected it.
What you are seeing here now is a extremely edited version of the original question, which was too long.
So, basically, I was looking for a alternate light/heat source for my science-fiction novel which I am planning to write. I didn't rely on stars due to some reasons that I omitted from the original question. So, I came up with this concept.
The Vulkan System
So, in this starless (but not geocentric in any way) system, there is surprisingly a planet that actually emits light (and heat) to its own planets, this planet is known as Vulkan. I will go into depth about this planet.
Vulkan is a Super-Earth, with about 15 Earth masses, and is a rocky planet, and a density of 5.51g/cm3, with a radius of about 15,715 km.
Vulkan has deep oceans that extend up to 20 km deep below. This ocean will play a major part in the emission of light by Vulkan (indirectly). Vulkan is actually a ocean-world, with no land, but it has oceans that are moderately deep.
Due to Vulcan's stupendous mass, this means that the core would be much more hotter than that of the Earth. I am too lazy to do the calculation, but it seems that it would be close to the temperatures of Saturn's core. The core is a mix of iron, nickel and other heavy elements, including radioactive uranium, that heats up the core even further, due to radioactive decay heat.
Vulkan's has an extremely dense atmosphere, at about 50 bars at sea level.
Its atmosphere is divided into 3 parts.
Troposphere- This layer of the atmosphere extends up to 35 km in height, intersected by a cold trap. The composition of this layer is 75% oxygen, 23% carbon dioxide and traces of water vapour, argon etc. This layer contains a narrow cold-trap that condenses water back into clouds, and raining back to Vulkan.
Stratosphere- This layer is composed of ethanol and methane, and is also known as the "combustion zone".
Thermosphere- This layer is composed of hydrogen gas. As hydrogen gas is opaque to thermal infrared waves, it can trap heat and keep Vulkan warm. However this layer is extremely tenuous compared to the rest of the atmosphere.
The Vulkan Cycle
Here is how Vulkan emits light and heat. I will show this process in a
really crappy diagram, but try to explain as much as possible in the text, but TL;DR it is the burning of methane and ethanol-richstratosphere, that releases the heat and light:
This occurs largely due to 3 organisms-
- Aetherates- They are thermosynthetic organisms that consume carbon dioxide and water to produce glucose and oxygen, with just heat. These Aetherates clump around hydrothermal vents on Vulkan's ocean floor, and form tall spires ranging to more than 20km in height, to trap the heat of the hydrothermal vents within them. They are not affected by Vulkan's strong gravity as they are buoyed up by the water beneath them. They can resist the intense pressures, as they have unique structures in their body, similar to deep-sea creatures here on Earth.
- Firemakers- These are Facultative Aerobes, that are in a symbiotic relation with Aetherates. They take some of the excess glucose from the Aetherates, in exchange for protection. These organisms decompose glucose into ethanol. They have an inbuilt mechanism that prevents them from dying due to too much ethanol production.
- Anaetherates- These are anaerobic organisms that decompose dead Aetherates, Firemakers into methane. They are obligate anaerobes that reside beneath the sea-floor of Vulkan. This methane is released in the form of bubbles.
The Aetherates, release oxygen into the atmosphere, by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The oxygen is sucked up into the combustion zone by massive updrafts powered by the heat of the combustion occurring in the atmosphere.
But at the same time, the Anaetherates and Firemakers release massive amounts of ethanol and methane into the ocean. The ethanol evaporates from the ocean, whereas methane bubbles out from the ocean floor towards the surface. These two combustible substances are also carried up into the atmosphere by the updrafts occuring. This constant supply of ethanol and methane from the ocean ensures that the combustion zone remains stable and burns for a long time.
Meanwhile, the water and carbon dioxide, being heavier than air, form massive parcels of air that sink down towards the surface. The water condenses in the cold trap, whereas the carbon dioxide falls into the ocean air, where the Aetherates act upon it to produce oxygen gas, which is again carried upwards by updrafts.
The hydrogen-layer, acts as a greenhouse gas. Since hydrogen is opaque to infrared radiation, this helps lock in some of the heat on Vulkan. But since the hydrogen layer is comparatively tenuous compared to the rest of the atmosphere (~0.5 bars-0.0000000.... bars), not too much heat is trapped. This ensures that Vulkan doesn't turn into a Venus-like steamy, crushing environment, while at the same time ensuring that Vulkan doesn't freeze into a iceball planet. Since most of the oxygen gets used up in combusting the ethanol and methane, there is virtually no risk of the hydrogen catching fire and igniting. The hydrogen layer is simply hot, but not burning. Furthermore, Vulkan's intense gravity holds the hydrogen in place, and prevents it from escaping.
A cold trap exists, but as an extremely narrow band about 3-4 km thick, and about 6km above sea level. Since the cold trap is really narrow, there is no thunderstorm formation on this planet, and thus no lightning occurs. Whatever rain occurs is merely a drizzle, or shallow rainfall. The intense heat of the combustion zone prevents tall clouds from forming, as they break apart from the heat. The cold trap, furthermore, is only effective for water. The cold trap simply isn't "cold" enough to condense ethanol back into rain. Even if ethanol manages to be captured by water, or condense, that ethanol is going to be a tiny fraction of the total ethanol produced. The majority of the ethanol combines with the methane, and rises into the atmosphere via updrafts, and burns in the combustion zone. The carbon dioxide and water vapour are then pulled back to the surface by powerful downdrafts.
This "combustion-zone" is what is responsible for producing the heat and light of Vulkan. This zone is where ethanol and methane, after reaching this layer, combust vigourously at intense temperatures, to produce heat and light. The reason why this combustion occurs is due to a reason which would be extremely lengthy, distracting backstory, so it is not included here. This light is completely free of UV rays and other radiation. Also, no stellar winds or flares are produced here.
Vulkan has 9 planets (moons?) orbiting it. These "planets" vary in mass and size. But for now, this is the planet, which shall be focused on in this question, Virgo:
- Virgo is a moon that orbits a extremely compact rocky planet Aquarius at about 500,000 km from it. Its parent planet Aquarius, has 7 earth masses, and a radius of 7800 km which implies an extreme density of about 21 g/cm3. Aquarius (along with Virgo) orbits Vulkan at a distance of 2 million km.
- Unlike its parent planet, Virgo has the exact same density, mass and radius as Earth. It also has the same amount of water as that of Earth. This implies Earthlike gravity, suitable for existence of Earthlike-life. But unfortunately I don't know if Vulkan can radiate enough heat and light to warm up Virgo to temperatures suitable for the existence of Earthlike-life.
The main question focuses, thus, upon Virgo, the moon of Aquarius.
Can Vulkan radiate enough heat/light to heat up Virgo to temperatures suitable for the existence of Earthlike-life? If no, then how should I fix my world?
1. Extra info- For those who are wondering where I got my calculations, well, there were a lot of sites from where I gathered, but I mostly used Omnicalculator to calculate size, gravity etcetera
2. No, Radioactive Decay isn't the primary heat source for the planet. Although it indirectly heats Vulkan to habitable temperatures, it cannot emit enough heat and light to keep a close by planet warm enough. Furthermore, Radioactive Decay is going to emit harmful radiation that can destroy life. Hence, I decided not to use Radioactive Decay as the heat source. Radioactive Decay and Primordial Heat from planetary formation are indirect factors in sustaining the Aetherate-Firemaker-Anaetherate Cycle.
3. The heat comes from the combustion of methane and ethanol in the upper atmosphere, which are produced by organisms present in the deep oceans.