Philosophically, that's easy - like Heraclitus' river, the planet continuously changes, so you can never go back to the same planet you lifted off from. Unless time on it stops as soon as you leave.
But that's not what you meant, I suppose.
So. For a single flight (like the Apollo missions), it is doable - have a deep enough gravity well that no significant payload can escape the planet's gravity unless they exhaust the fuel needed for the reentry brake. This way, also, atmosphere density increases fast enough that aerobraking from the Karman height to the ground would result in a meteoric burn.
But if the above is not doable, or potentially infinite fuel resources are somehow available in orbit, so that you can always support a Space Shuttle-style reentry, then you need a planet you can't land on, ever. Hiding the surface wouldn't work - radar, parachutes and helicopter-like propellers would allow landing anyway.
So, we need to disrupt a very large, even armored landing capsule that could split open and release a helicopter at a suitable altitude, capable of hovering and choosing the landing zone with ease; or prevent that helicopter from hovering, or at least from landing without crashing.
The only way I can think of is violent, continuous cyclonic storms over the whole planet. Like Jupiter, but worse.
You can stay safe on the ground (maybe in a deep depression) as long as you like, and wait for some brief respite, and launch just then, in the ten or fifteen minutes' of relative calm in the eye of a storm. Let's imagine there is on average at most only one such period, in any one given area, every two or three days. When leaving, that's easy: you prep for launch, and wait. And wait. And wait. When you're sure you can, you launch - and you need about three minutes to rise to safety.
But when coming back, once you've committed to reentry, you do not know whether the safe area will be or even whether there will be one.
Chances of hitting the right five-minute window in three days, if the weather is truly unpredictable, are less than 0.2%. Even aborting the landing and retrying if things look ugly won't increase that very much.
And landing in the middle of a storm means crashing almost surely. You cannot hover at high altitude (also, it would be useless), you cannot use parachutes - they might even be worse - and the landing vessel cannot fly in the weather. Given those conditions, you simply cannot land.
Of course, the plausibility of such a hellhole of a planet is debatable, to say the least.