Minerals and geography.
While there are some minerals that form in the tropics due to higher solar flux eg bauxite. Most economically viable minerals are with associated with hydrothermal systems. Why? Hydrothermal systems are allow for dissolving then concentrating many minerals. Any time somebody is mining a vein of minerals, they are mining the results of hydrothermal systems.
While some resulting rocks are more acidic and others alkaline, which does affect which plants grow. This doesn't really help indicate which minerals are where. to my knowledge there are no bulk biomes associated with specific minerals.
Overburden is an issue. Many places in the world may have rich deposits but if they are under a kilometer of overburden they won't be mined. This also means that flat places that are good for farming tend to be piles of overburden that are not good for mining.
Overburden can any of: Glacial till, river/lake deposits, uplifted ocean floor, lava, other igneous deposits etc.
The minerals are buried making it harder to prospect and mine if anything ever was/is found.
Of course another major deposit type is those deposited as part of ocean/lake/swamp beds. Generally these will be lighter minerals such as potassium, lithium, salt. Gold is rather si
Mines are often in mountainous or hilly regions simply because the overburden is low and prospectors can find minerals at surface.
Another major placement is along valleys following faults. Cracks allow water to flow. Faults tend to be weaker thus erode faster thus where waterways often end up. This leads to saying best place to find a mine is within eyesight of the head frame of another mine.
I suppose there will be much hand waving to get past the required physics, chemistry, metallurgy, computation, manufacturing electrical,,etc technologies that are required or very useful. To just build a steam turbine of good efficiency is a big problem.
All this to say is that places that are good to mine are rarely where is is good to farm and thus put a city and areas easy to mine are poor for farming thus no cities. This has been generic to most minerals because it applies to most minerals. There can of course be a reasonable places to put a city with mine sites somewhat nearby ie a few days travel.