Not while using any real world materials
You will find the rare story of an aircraft surviving after a very indirect impact with another aircraft, but the only reason any of these aircraft would survive is if the hit was very indirect (like wing to wing) such that there is not anything vital along the line of cleavage or if the surviving plane had enough material to ablate along the line of impact to disintegrate the entire cross-section of the other.
Most fighter jets produced within the past few decades have had top speeds between mach-1.5 (~1850kph) and mach-2.8 (~3460kph). You can reduce these numbers from further calculations a bit if you are planning for an interceptor specifically made for taking out slow planes or helicopters. Top speeds are most often used during a combat approach, so we should sample these values, and not cruising speeds for this answer because they fall in the range of likely impact speeds. Air-to-air missiles need higher speeds than the aircraft they need to catch up with; so, most modern air-to-air missiles have speeds between mach-2.5 (~3090kph) and mach-5 (~6180kph). This means that you should expect a combined impact speed of up to mach-7.8 (9630kph); though a I suspect a mach-2 to mach-3 impact would be more commonplace.
To fully understand just how energetic of an impact this is, consider what happens to a car, a vehicle designed to survive a crash, when it hits another car at 100kph. This creates an impact energy of ~770 J/kg which is enough to turn both vehicles into burning crumpled messes and according to various sources has somewhere between a 90-100% certainty of death per occupant. To fully understand how much worse an air-to-air impact is, remember that energy=mass*velocity^2 ;so, as velocity increases, impact energy goes up exponentially; so, at our previously stated velocities, you are looking at an average impact energy of about ~735,000 J/kg with the potential of ~7,156,000 J/kg on a head-to-head impact. That is 4-5 orders of magnitude more energy to mass than a car moving at Highway speeds which should alone answer your question.
But to even see it it's theoretically possible, bullet manufactures have spent a long time identifying what materials melt, deform, and shatter the least at highspeed impacts in order to make the best armor penetrating weapons. The current leader in this particular material science arms race is the tungsten-carbide sabot. Even large anti-tank tungsten-carbide sabots begin to deform after penetrating just a few mm of steel... and that survivability will go way down once you try adding navigation equipment, sensors, propulsion, etc. So, while I might believe that a tungstite carbide armored drone missle might pernitrate the mostly hallow wing or tailfin of a fighter and come out the other side in working order, the second it nicks something of any significant mass like an engine, cockpit, or even a structural beam, it's odds of surviving the impact go way down. Sure, it will still come out the other side... but as a spray of molten metal, not as an in-tact interceptor.
Unless you use a ram shield: AKA, the Sci-fi Answer
Since there is no conceivable way to survive the kinetic forces of the impact, your best recourse is to make up a non-kinetic one. In some settings, aircraft have nuclear powered shields that can obliterate/absorb arbitrarily high amounts of mass/energy. In these settings, the offense/defense contest is between weapons able to level a city block and energy shields made to stop them.
So, if a shielded fighter were to ram a significantly less shielded other fighter, then the shield itself could cut through the other fighter without actually making any physical contact with it. For this to work though, it's probably safe to assume that you need contesting forces of significantly different tech levels since a the shield of a small portable ram fighter would need to be able to outperform the shield of the larger aircraft it means to ram through.