I decided to describe the evolution of scientifically plausible alien creatures and thought about how alien neurons can transmit signals to each other and is it possible in theory some mechanism that could increase the speed of thinking of my aliens (so that they think faster than us)?
Between neurons, the signal is transmitted in special structures called synapses. The transmission of information in synapses is due to the release of chemicals, that is, according to the chemical principle. While the information remains inside the nerve cell, the transmission is carried out electrically due to the fact that special electrical impulses — action potentials - propagate through the membrane of nerve cells. These are short steps of electric current, they have a roughly triangular shape and run along the membrane of dendrites, along the body of the neuron axon and eventually reach synapses. Nerve cells, in order to generate an action potential, must also have such a charge of energy, and this charge is called the resting potential. It exists, it is inherent in all nerve cells and is approximately -70 mV, that is -0.07 V, and that in our case is provided by a sodium-potassium pump penetrating the entire thickness of the membrane, which constantly pumps potassium ions into the cell, simultaneously pumping sodium ions out of it; at the same time, the movement of both ions occurs against the gradients of their concentrations. When you stimulate a neuron, it starts to pass Na+ into the cell. There is also K+ in the membrane, but it will also start coming out of the cell. If a certain threshold is reached, the cell will flood with Na+ much faster than K+ can leave, positively polarizing the cell. This results in an electrical signal. Immediately after the electrical signal is given, the cell cannot send another signal — this is a refractory period. Within 1-2 ms, the cell will not fire, even if the cell still can, and for the next signal, all chemicals will be dropped in the right direction. In order to reach the trigger threshold, several stimuli are most often required. In addition, the intensity of the signal depends on the cells, not on the stimuli. Together with the modulation of stimuli, cells react differently to each other, adding depth of information.