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In the research I have done, cold climates trend toward dry climates. I want to create a climate that circumvents this. I want to create a very cold climate with the average temperature hovering about 3-5 degrees above freezing and very high precipitation (rainforest levels). Is this possible through geographic and astronomic features? For example, somehow trapping precipitation in a certain area to get the levels of rain desired?

Assume earth like planet orbiting an F star with a planetary mass of 1 and a density of 3.94 g/cm^3. The atmospheric pressure is between 0.3-1 atm with a density of 0.429 kg/m^3.

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    $\begingroup$ Some of the largest swamps in the world are in Siberia. I think they are called tiaga. With the ones in western Siberia much wetter. Between November and February these areas are very cold. $\endgroup$
    – UVphoton
    Sep 18 at 21:56
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    $\begingroup$ In the two minutes research that I have done, I found the city of Tromsø in Norway, 77,000 inhabitants, which has a average mean temperature of 3.4 °C and average annual precipitation of 1090.6 mm. In what way does it not satisfy the requirements? Are more examples needed? $\endgroup$
    – AlexP
    Sep 18 at 22:19
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    $\begingroup$ @UVPhoton I think you mean taigas. They're more kinda like pine forests, cold but not necessarily moist. Siberia is lying right in the middle of the continent, which means it's usually drier than oceanic or tropical climates, for instance. $\endgroup$
    – Tortliena
    Sep 18 at 22:53
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    $\begingroup$ @Tortliena Yes, I misspelled, but the Western Siberia Taigas and Taiga refers to trees. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Siberian_taiga But are apparently about 40% wetlands and marshes. There was a short National geographic entry that had surprised me: "The world's largest wetland is a series of bogs in the Siberia region of Russia. The Western Siberian Lowlands cover more than a million square kilometers (386,102 square miles)." But maybe a bog is not not a true swamp? $\endgroup$
    – UVphoton
    Sep 18 at 23:10
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    $\begingroup$ @AlexP, it won't constitute a swamp if the drainage is good. It being coastal (and urban), the drainage probably is good. The other factors are all there. $\endgroup$ Sep 19 at 9:18

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I give you Arctophila fulva, the arctic freshwater marsh!

This group occurs as small patches throughout arctic and subarctic North America, typically on the margins of ponds, lakes and beaded streams. It is also found on large to small floodplains where various wetlands form in oxbows, wet depressions, low-lying areas, and abandoned channels, including freshwater marshes. Soils are muck or mineral, and water is often nutrient-rich. In floodplains, permafrost is absent. Occurrences are typically dominated by grasses and sedges, but may have high forb cover in some instances. Dominant species include Arctophila fulva, Carex aquatilis, or Eriophorum angustifolium. Additional dominants occur in the subarctic, including Comarum palustre, Hippuris vulgaris, Lysimachia thyrsiflora, Carex utriculata, Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani, Typha latifolia, Menyanthes trifoliata, and Equisetum fluviatile. (Source)

And if that doesn't get your blood pumping, let me further introduce...

The Arctic Tidal Salt Marsh

This macrogroup consists of herbaceous tidal salt marshes with >10% vascular species cover that are subject to regular inundation. This includes low marshes, brackish meadows, and high marshes. Common herbaceous species in the mid to lower salt marsh include Carex glareosa, Carex ramenskii, Carex subspathacea, Carex ursina, Cochlearia officinalis, Dupontia fisheri, Puccinellia phryganodes, and Stellaria humifusa. In brackish meadows inland of the mid to lower salt marsh additional species such as Calamagrostis deschampsioides, Chrysanthemum arcticum, and Salix ovalifolia commonly occur. Tidal salt marshes are associated with estuaries or coastal lagoons or other locations protected from wave action, such as the inland side of barrier islands. In the Arctic, salt marshes may occur wherever there is relatively flat land at sea level that is subjected to permafrost subsidence or storm surge inundation. They occur along Alaska's Arctic coastline from the Bering Sea to the Arctic Ocean. The Bristol Bay lowlands in southwestern Alaska mark a major transition zone between Arctic and more temperate Pacific tidal marshes. Species common to the Pacific Coast salt marshes dominate east of the Alaska Peninsula, while species common to the Arctic salt marshes become more dominant to the west of the Alaska Peninsula and Bristol Bay. (Source)

In short, marshes exist everywhere that isn't frozen solid. You're good to go.

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  • $\begingroup$ Eh, swamps differ from marshes owing to the presence of trees. This means they can't be so far north that the trees won't grow. But these unquestionably mean that cold doesn't require dry, so swamps are feasible. $\endgroup$
    – Mary
    Sep 18 at 22:48
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    $\begingroup$ @Mary One of the modern problems with this Stack is the addiction to literal. It's the OP's privilege to decide whether or not I've failed to understand the question. (b) The point of this answer is to demonstrate that there are terrestrial conditions similar to what the OP is looking for that reflect a sense of realism for the OP's imaginary world orbiting an F-type star no matter what latitude he/she wants to use. Soggy dirt above freezing will grow things. Even trees would be within suspension-of-disbelief on that world. $\endgroup$
    – JBH
    Sep 19 at 1:04
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    $\begingroup$ "temperature hovering about 3-5 degrees above freezing" is still warm enough for trees. It starts to get too cold when yearly average gets below zero. $\endgroup$
    – ojs
    Sep 20 at 10:32
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Cold is linked to dry because the capacity of air to carry water is linked to temperature. It's physics as much as geography. The wettest cold places are never going to be as wet as tropical swamps.

You can have wet, cold places but they need the water to come from rivers or melt-water rather than rain.

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    $\begingroup$ The Hoh rainforest of Washington State begs to differ $\endgroup$ Sep 19 at 23:26
  • $\begingroup$ @NixonCranium Av. Temps in the Hoh only fall below 5C in two months of the year. $\endgroup$ Sep 20 at 5:40
  • $\begingroup$ In how far do the presence of layers of permafrost or of stagnosoils below the surface layers factor into this? Both have the potential of creating extensive bodies of stagnant water in temperate or boreal zones that I can imagine being easily as wet as any tropical swamp even if the precipitation doesn't compare. $\endgroup$
    – Schmuddi
    Sep 20 at 10:42
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What if you have a very large lake / sea that is geothermally heated (volcanoes, tectonic fissures, whatever). That puts a lot of moisture into the air. Prevailing winds move that over your cold swamp area where it precipitates out as the air cools.

You can have a little geothermal activity in the swamp to explain why the ground doesn't freeze over the course of long years.

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average temperature hovering about 3-5 degrees above freezing and very high precipitation (rainforest levels)

Have you heard of the Alaskan Panhandle? Or the coast of British Columbia? Or the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State? It is super common for these places to have literally months of constant rain and temperatures hovering around 40 degrees Fahrenheit. (I lived it and all I got was SAD)

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    $\begingroup$ Fiordland in New Zealand is similar. It's very cold and wet, and everywhere that's not a mountain is a swamp. $\endgroup$ Sep 19 at 9:19
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The name for subarctic swampland is usually muskeg. Generally it is solid in the winter time and treacherous when thawed.

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Just look at Scotland, Ireland, Iceland etc. Pretty much all of Northwestern Europe gets lots of rain due to the Gulf stream, and is generally not particularly hot (although often slightly warmer than other places at the same latitude). These places all have plenty of bogs and marshes. Remember, low temperature also means low evapotranspiration.

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Well, when I play Rimworld, the word used for a climate of low temperature but high humidity is "cold bog".

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  • $\begingroup$ Bogs are wetlands that are acidic. Fens are wetlands that are alkaline. $\endgroup$
    – Tangurena
    Sep 21 at 17:49

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