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Eucalyptus is known to be responsible for bushfires in extreme heat during summer months in Australia. These wildfires negatively affect the koalas (https://www.aljazeera.com/news/2020/12/7/more-than-60000-koalas-affected-in-australias-bushfires). They are currently in a vulnerable state, due to these wildfires. The eucalyptus they feed on is leading to the fires. It is speculated that they may be extinct within 50 years (https://youtu.be/hq5i8tfER9E).

I am curious. Could koalas possibly be saved via a domestication process, in which they are weaned off of eucalyptus and fed some other type of plant, less likely to spontaneously combust?

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Domestication is more about making an animal suitable for humans to raise, and manage over multiple generations, than it is about changing their diet. Every domesticated animal and their wild counterpart have almost capabilities when it comes to what they can and cannot eat. Koalas have evolved to just eat eucalyptus. With 4 years before maturity it isn't likely that you'd be able to selectively breed a koala to be able to survive without eucalyptus within 12 generations.

Like in the article you referenced. It's far more likely to attempt to save koalas by protecting their habitat than attempting to "domesticate" them in a hope that their highly specialized digestive systems will be able to drastically change in such a short amount of time.

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