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I am currently thinking about a scenario in which a large country spanning an above-sea and temperate Beringia controlling a far-more fertile Australia along with the rest of Oceania and Hawaii, an empire which has formed alliances with countries spanning a more hospitable Antarctica as well as many countries in the south hemisphere. In my story, the United States along with the multi-continental empire are two superpowers and they decide to divide the world in two hemisphere, the northern side is managed and influenced by the United States (NATO and alliance with Japan and Korea) and the southern side belongs to the other country (Southern Oceans). My question is: could Beringia send ships and planes back and forth to and from the southern hemisphere without encountering their rivals while crossing the North Pacific? Could Beringia cross the Pacific without being blocked by the USA in case of conflict or is the ocean large enough for it to not happen?

map

sta.sh/02a0d41z8nsm

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    $\begingroup$ May I point out that for quite some time the southern hemisphere was actually controlled by England, Portugal, and Spain, three countries from the northern hemisphere? (And England's control over its part of the southern hemisphere ended only in the 20th century. During WW1 England had enough control over South Africa, Australia and New Zealand to bring them into a war half a world away.) (And I don't know whether the USA counts as a "country in the far northern Pacific", but it pretty much controls Australia.) $\endgroup$
    – AlexP
    Commented Jun 10, 2022 at 14:52
  • $\begingroup$ Would you put up that map of your world on this queston? I looked for it but the question it was on must have been deleted. $\endgroup$
    – Willk
    Commented Jun 10, 2022 at 15:13
  • $\begingroup$ "Could Beringia cross the Pacific without being blocked by the USA in case of conflict": It can if it can. If it cannot, it cannot. It all depends on the correlation of forces. As shown in WW2, Japan could not cross the Pacific without being blocked by the USA. On the other hand, the USA could and did cross the Pacific without being blocked by Japan. One of the two empires had a vastly superior naval force. $\endgroup$
    – AlexP
    Commented Jun 10, 2022 at 15:22
  • $\begingroup$ The country in the "far northern pacific" is not the United States, its the other one. $\endgroup$ Commented Jun 10, 2022 at 16:20
  • $\begingroup$ @Willk sure: sta.sh/02a0d41z8nsm $\endgroup$ Commented Jun 11, 2022 at 19:08

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Fly over neutral territory

flight paths

Flight routes taken by your red/pink Berengians do not traverse territory held by their blue adversaries. They traverse territory held by the green nation (presumably a third power) or unaffiliated lands.

These lands are either no threat / so far below that they cannot do anything about these flights, or (presumably the case for green nation) compensated in some way for tolerating the flights.

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  • $\begingroup$ While I mostly agree with this answer, planes can not nearly maintain the trade of bulk goods that are normally moved by ship. Cutting off the sea routes would still be a decisive blow. Now if there was a railway system that the neutral countries would let them use, that would be different, but it would be very hard for China to stay neutral and allow the SO to use them as a safe haven for transporting goods. $\endgroup$
    – Nosajimiki
    Commented Dec 8, 2022 at 23:08
  • $\begingroup$ If you were able to overland ship goods into India's southern tip, you could then have your ships make port in pink water ports and continue on to Southern Hemisphere. $\endgroup$
    – hszmv
    Commented Dec 8, 2022 at 23:19
  • $\begingroup$ @hszmv - or maybe ship overland to Myanmar which I think is pink. I am not sure where the pink line of ocean control starts but it looks like it is at the southern tip of Myanmar. $\endgroup$
    – Willk
    Commented Dec 8, 2022 at 23:58
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    $\begingroup$ I only suggested India because it has very good rail transit compared to the Myanmar and other nations in that area. $\endgroup$
    – hszmv
    Commented Dec 9, 2022 at 14:02
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Crossover won't be an issue

So your Beringian Empire has Hawaii and some more islands too ? A straight crossover to Australia wouldn't be an issue. But this constellation would give rise to tensions around the pacific coasts, Japan and the Americas. With multiple steakholders involved !

.. will Beringia be that powerfull ?

I wonder if your Beringia could ever become a super power. Your world would probably go green when current day politics were in place, having China and Russia join forces, they take Japan easily. Most resources (like energy) are in the south, Berigia will have to import them. I don't know the climate, but Beringias cold winters require lots of fuel.

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  • $\begingroup$ Beringia does possess most of the Pacific islands but not Hawaii. But could the United States block Beringia from the south hemisphere in case of a conflict? USA does own some pacific islands and Hawaii. I am asking if Beringia can travel freely from north to south in any circumstance. $\endgroup$ Commented Jul 16, 2022 at 14:41
  • $\begingroup$ @Bangerblade when Beringia does NOT control Hawaii, you should change your question. Now it sais "Beringia controlling a far-more fertile Australia along with the rest of Oceania and Hawaii" $\endgroup$
    – Goodies
    Commented Jul 17, 2022 at 7:48
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Historically yes, currently not likely

During the time of British Empire, this sort of projection of power was relatively easy because the fleets had to be seen with one's eye to intercept. This means that merchant fleets could easily move around with little risk of interception except in certain spots. In the "age of piracy" merchant ships were typically attacked at notable choke points, where geography would force ships into predictable routes, but in the open oceans, routes were way to wide and unpredictable to just sit around and wait.

But now adays we have global satellite networks which make it possible to track every ship in the ocean 24/7 with extreme accuracy. So, when a major government intends to block shipping, there is no sneaking through.

The entire trip from East Russia to Australia is about 6200 mi. The average cargo ship can move at speeds of 550-680mi/day and the average military fleet can move at speeds of about 900mi/day. So, with fleets in the USA and Japan, NATO would have days to prepare and launch fleets to intercept any merchant fleet. You could try sending large, well guarded convoys, but even that is a bad idea, because NATO could simply see how many ships you are sending and muster an appropriate interception force. You send 10 ships, NATO sends 20. You send 20, they bring 40, etc.

The only way to keep the North and South connected by sea would be for the Southern Oceans to win an early and decisive naval victory crippling NATOs capacity to operate in the pacific. That said, this scenario may not be as 1-sided as it sounds. While the SO may have trouble trading between the North and South, trade between NATO's East Asian and American Assets would be equally strained. One way or another, a quick and decisive naval victory would be sought by both sides; so, it would probably not take long for those trade routes to be decisively closed to one alliance and left open to the other.

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Could Beringia cross the Pacific without being blocked by the USA in case of conflict or is the ocean large enough for it to not happen?

The Pacific Ocean is not large enough for this to not happen. Outer space is that big. The oceans of Earth are not.

It would be technologically feasible for the modern U.S. to block surface ships in this scenario if it were determined to do so.

It would first use patrol aircraft (like the P-8), or satellites, or a network of small surveillance ships, or some other means to detect surface ship travel. Then, it would deploy aircraft or warships with anti-ship missiles, or nuclear attack submarines to destroy the ships.

For merchant ships, far less advanced technologies (like cutters or frigates that would board merchant ships with small contingents of marines) could do the job.

Realistically, the U.S. could pose a serious barrier to Beringia doing this at any technology level from the 1930s and beyond, given the experiences of World War II, and could pose a meaningful barrier although not nearly as effective a barrier, even with World War I or 1920s technology.

But, it would have to be willing to engage in an act of war in international waters to do so.

Historically, global powers have respected international waters as free for travel except during World Wars and even then only with respect to active combatants in those wars.

Non-nuclear submarines would be hard pressed to travel that far in the Pacific without the support of visible and vulnerable resupply ships with the same vulnerabilities as surface ships, but could otherwise avoid detection.

Nuclear powered submarines could make the trip without being resupplied and could probably avoid detection, at any technology level through the present. But, it is hard to carry a lot of people or freight that way at an affordable cost. It wouldn't be impossible (there have been a handful of nuclear cargo submarines mostly designed for going under the Arctic ice sheet to save time in shipping), but difficult and expensive.

It isn't clear what the relative technology capabilities and relative industrial capabilities of the countries in question would be and what their stomach would be for interdicting Berginian maritime traffic in international waters.

Of course, we do have historical precedents for this kind of thing.

The British in the far northern hemisphere, controlled Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Hong Kong, and the Falkland Islands controlling it all before aircraft were invented. It fought a war in the late 20th century to hold onto the Falkland Islands and won.

The Dutch controlled lots of territory in Indonesia, half a world away and accessible only by sea at the time that this commenced.

Belgium had African colonies.

Russia waged a war with Japan that was a close struggle despite being heavily western tilted in population and economic resources.

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